The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999

Chapter I – Preliminary

Section 1. Short title, Extent and Commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.

(2) It extends to the whole of India

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint, and different dates maybe appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.

Unless the context otherwise requires:-

(a) “Appellate Board” means the Appellate Board established under Section 83 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999;

(b) “authorised user” means the authorised user of a geographical indication registered under Section 17;

(c) “deceptively similar” A geographical indication shall be deemed to be deceptively similar to another geographical indication if it so nearly resembles that other geographical indication as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion;

(d) “district court” has the meaning assigned to it in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908;

(e) “geographical indication”, in relation to goods, means an indication which identifies such goods as agricultural goods, natural goods or manufactured goods as originating, or manufactured in the territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality, reputation or other characteristic of such goods is essentially attributable to its geographical origin and in case where such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the production or of processing or preparation of the goods concerned takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be.

Explanation:- For the purposes of this clause, any name which is not the name of a country, region or locality of that country shall also be considered as the geographical indication if it relates to a specific geographical area and is used upon or in relation to particular goods originating from that country, region or locality, as the case may be;

(f) “goods” means any agricultural, natural or manufactured goods or any goods of handicraft or of industry and includes food stuff;

(g) “indication” includes any name, geographical or figurative representation or any combination of them conveying or suggesting the geographical origin of goods to which it applies;

(h) “name” includes any abbreviation of a name;

(i) “package” includes any case, box, container, covering, folder, receptacle, vessel, casket, bottle, wrapper, label, band, ticket, reel, frame, capsule, cap, lid, stopper and cork;

(j) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

Section 2. Definitions and interpretation

(1) In this Act,

(k) “producer”, in relation to goods, means any person who:-

(i) if such goods are agricultural goods, produces the goods and includes the person who processes or packages such goods;

(ii) if such goods are natural goods, exploits the goods;

(iii) if such goods are handicraft or industrial goods, makes or manufactures the goods, and includes any person who trades or deals in such production, exploitation, making or manufacturing, as the case may be, of the goods

(l) “register means the Register of Geographical Indications referred to in Section 6;

(m) “registered” [with its grammatical variations] means registered under this Act;

(n) “registered proprietor” in relation to a geographical indication, means any association of persons or of producers or any organisation for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of the geographical indication;

(o) “Registrar” means the Registrar of

Geographical Indications referred to in Section 3;

(p) “tribunal” means the Registrar or, as the case may be, the Appellate Board before which the proceeding concerned is pending.

(2) Words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Trade Marks Act, 1999 shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in that Act.

(3) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference:-

(a) to the use of a geographical indication shall be construed as a reference to the use of a printed or other visual representation of the geographical indication.

(b) to the use of a geographical indication in relation to, goods shall be construed as a reference to the use of the geographical indication upon, or in any physical or in any other relation whatsoever, to such goods;

(c) to a registered geographical indication shall be construed as including a reference to a geographical indication registered in the register;

(d) to the Registrar shall be construed as including a reference to any officer when discharging the functions of the Registrar in pursuance of sub-section (2) of Section 3;

(e) to the Geographical Indications Registry shall be construed as including a reference to any office of the Geographical Indications Registry.

Chapter II – The Register and Conditions for Registration

Section 3. Registrar of Geographical indications

(1) The Controller-General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks appointed under sub-section (1) of Section 3 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999, shall be the Registrar of Geographical Indications.

(2) The Central Government may appoint such officers with such designations as it thinks fit for the purpose of discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar, such functions of the Registrar under this Act, as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge.

Section 4. Power of Registrar to Withdraw or Transfer cases etc.

Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-section (2) of Section 3, the Registrar may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded therein, withdraw any matter pending before an officer appointed under the said sub-section (2) and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was so withdrawn or transfer the same to another officer so appointed who may, subject to special directions in the order of transfer, proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

Section 5. Geographical indications Registry and offices thereof

(1) For the purpose of this Act, there shall be established a Registry which shall be known as the Geographical Indications Registry.

(2) The head office of the Geographical Indications Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, and for the purpose of facilitating the registrations of geographical indications, there may be established at such places as the Central Government may think fit branch offices of the Geographical Indications Registry.

(3)The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, define the territorial limits within which an office of the Geographical Indications Registry may exercise its functions.

(4) There shall be a seal of the Geographical Indications Registry.

Section 6. Register of Geographical Indications

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Register of geographical indications shall be kept at the Head office of the Geographical Indications Registry, wherein shall be entered all registered geographical indications with the names, addresses and descriptions of the proprietors, the names, addresses and descriptions of authorised users and such other matters relating to registered geographical indications as may be prescribed and such registers may be maintained wholly or partly on computer.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (I) it shall be lawful for the Registrar to keep the records wholly or partly in computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form, subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed.

(3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly in computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form under sub-section (2), any reference in this Act to any entry in the register shall be construed as the reference to the entry as maintained on computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form, as the case may be.

(4) No notice of any trust, express or implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register and no such notice shall be receivable by the Registrar.

(5) Subject to the superintendence and direction of the Central Government the register shall be kept under the control and management of the Registrar.

(6) There shall be kept at each branch office of the Geographical Indications Registry a copy of the register and such other documents mentioned in Section 78 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct.

Section 7. Part A and Part B of the Register

(1) The register referred to in Section 6 shall be divided into two Parts called respectively Part A and B.

(2) The particulars relating to the registration of the geographical indications shall be incorporated and form part of Part A of the register in the prescribed manner.

(3) The particulars relating to the registration of the authorised users shall be incorporated and form part of part B of the register in the prescribed manner.

Section 8. Registration to be in respect of Particular goods and area

(1) A geographical indication may be registered in respect of any or all of the goods, comprised in such class of goods as may be classified by the Registrar and in respect of a definite territory of a country, or a region or locality in that territory, as the case may be.

(2) The Registrar shall classify the goods under subsection (1), as far as may be, in accordance with the International classification of goods for the purposes of registration of geographical indication.

(3) The Registrar may publish in the prescribed manner an alphabetical index of classification of goods referred to in sub-section (2).

(4) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods fall or in the definite area as referred to in subsection (1) in respect of which the geographical indication is to be registered or where any goods are not specified in the alphabetical index of goods published under subsection (3) shall be determined by the Registrar whose decision in the matter shall be final.

Section 9. Prohibition of Registration of certain geographical indications

A geographical indication:

(a) the use of which would be likely to deceive or cause confusion; or

(b) the use of which would be contrary to any law for the time being in force; or

(c) which comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter; or

(d) which comprise or contains any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India; or

(e) which would otherwise be disentitled to protection in a court; or

(f) which are determined to be generic names or indications of goods and are, therefore, not or ceased to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country; or

(g) which although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, but falsely represent to the persons that the goods originate in another territory, region or locality, as the case may be,

shall not be registered as a geographical indication.

Explanation 1: For the purposes of this section, “generic names or indications” in relation to goods, means the name of a goods which, although relates to the place or the region where the goods was originally produced or manufactured, has lost its original meaning and has become the common name of such goods and serves as a designation for or indication of the kind, nature, type or other property or characteristic of the goods.

Explanation 2: In determining whether the name has become generic, account shall be taken of all factors including the existing situation in the region or place in which the name originates and the area of consumption of the goods.

Section 10. Registration of homonymous geographical indications

Subject to the provisions of Section 7, a homonymous geographical indication may be registered under this Act, if the Registrar is satisfied, after considering the practical conditions under which the homonymous indication in question shall be differentiated from other homonymous indications and the need to ensure equitable treatment of the producers of the goods concerned, that the consumers of such goods shall not be confused of misled in consequence of such registration.

Chapter III – Procedure for and Duration of Registration

Section 11. Application for registration

(1) Any association of persons or producers or any organization or authority established by or under any law for the time being in force representing the interest of the producers of the concerned goods, who are desirous of registering a geographical indication in relation to such goods shall apply in writing to the Registrar in such form and in such manner and accompanied by such fees as may be prescribed for the registration of the geographical indication.

(2) The application under sub-section (1) shall contain-

(a) statement as to how the geographical indication serves to designate the goods as originating from the concerned territory of the country or region or locality in the country, as the case may be, in respect of specific quality, reputation or other characteristics of which are due exclusively or essentially to the geographical, environment, with its inherent natural and human factors, and the production, processing or preparation of which takes place in such territory, region or locality, as the case may be;

(b) the class of goods to which the geographical indication shall apply;

(c) the geographical map of the territory of the country or region or locality in the country in which the goods originate or are being manufactured;

(d) the particulars regarding the appearance of the geographical indication as to whether it is comprised of the words or figurative elements or both;

(e) a statement containing such particulars of the producers of the concerned goods, if any, proposed to be initially registered with the registration of the geographical indication as may be prescribed; and

(f) such other particulars as may be prescribed.

(3) A single application may be made for registration of a geographical indication for different classes of goods and fee payable there for shall be in respect of each such class of goods.

(4) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be filed in the office of the Geographical Indications Registry within whose territorial limits, the territory of the country or the region or locality in the country to which the geographical indication relates is situated:

Provided that where such territory, region or locality as the case may be, is not situated in India, the application shall be filed in the office of the Geographical Indications Registry within whose territorial limits the place mentioned in the address for services in India as disclosed in the application, is situated.

(5) Every applications under sub-section (1) shall be examined by the Registrar in such manner as may be prescribed.

(6) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it absolutely or subject to such amendments, modification, conditions or limitations, if any, as he thinks fit.

(7) In the case of refusal or conditional acceptance of application, the Registrar shall record in writing the grounds for such refusal or conditional acceptance and the materials used by him in arriving at this decision.

Section 12. Withdrawal of acceptance

Where, after the acceptance of an application for registration of a geographical indication but before its registration, the Registrar is satisfied,

(a) that the application has been accepted in error, or

(b) that in the circumstances of the case the geographical indication should not be registered or should be registered subject conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the application has been accepted, the Registrar may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, withdraw the acceptance and proceed as if the application had not been accepted.

Section 13. Advertisement of application

(1) When an application for registration of a geographical indication has been accepted, whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted together with the conditions or limitations, if any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) Where after advertisement of an application-

(a) an error in the application has been corrected; or

(b) the application has been permitted to be amended under section 15, the Registrar may, in his discretion cause the application to be advertised again or instead of causing the application to be advertised again, notify in the prescribed manner, the correction made in the application.

Section 14. Opposition to registration

(1) Any person may, within three months from the date of advertisement or readvertisement of an application for registration or within such further period, not exceeding one month, in the aggregate, as the Registrar, on application made to him in such manner and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed allows, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner to the Registrar, of opposition to the registration.

(2) The Registrar shall serve a copy of the notice on the applicant for registration and, within two months from the receipt by the applicant of such copy of the notice of opposition, the applicant shall send to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a counter-statement of the grounds on which he relies for his application, and if he does not do so, he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.

(3) If the applicant sends such counter-statement, the Registrar shall serve a copy thereof on the person giving notice of opposition.

(4) Any evidence upon which the opponent and the applicant may rely shall be submitted in such manner and within such time as may be prescribed to the Registrar, and the Registrar shall give an opportunity to them to be heard, if they so desire.

(5) The Registrar shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide whether and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, the registration is to be permitted, and may take into account a ground of objection whether relied upon by the opponent or not.

(6) Where a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counterstatement after receipt of a copy of such notice neither resides nor carries on business in India, the Registrar may require him to give security for the costs of proceeding before him, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the opposition or application, as the case may be, as abandoned.

(7) The Registrar may, on request, permit correction of any error in, or any amendment of, a notice of opposition or a counter-statement on such terms as he thinks just.

Section 15. Correction and Amendment

The Registrar may, on such terms, as he thinks just, at any time, whether before or after acceptance of an application for registration under Section 11, permit the correction of any error or in connection with the application or permit an amendment of the application.

Provided that if an amendment is made to a single application referred to in sub-section (3) of Section 11 involving division of such application into two or more applications, the date of making of the initial application shall be deemed to be the date of making of the divided applications so divided.

Section 16. Registration

(1) Subject to the provisions of Section 12, when an application for registration of a geographical indication has been accepted and either =

(a) the application has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired; or

(b) the applicant has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant.

The Registrar shall, unless the Central Government otherwise directs, register the said geographical indication and the authorised users, if any, mentioned in the application and the geographical indication and the authorised users when registered shall be registered as of the date of the making of the said application and the date shall, subject to the provisions of Section 84, be deemed to be the date of registration.

(2) On the registration of a geographical indication, the Registrar shall issue each to the applicant and the authorised users, if registered with the geographical indication, a certificate in such form as may be prescribed of the registration thereof, sealed with the seal of the Geographical Indication Registry.

(3) Where registration of a geographical indication is not completed within twelve months from the date of the application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is competed within the time specified in that behalf in the notice.

(4) The Registrar may amend the register or a certificate of registration for the purpose of correcting a clerical error or on obvious mistake.

Section 17. Application for registration as authorised user

(1) Any person claiming to be the producer of the goods in respect of which a geographical indication has been registered under section 16 may apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner for registering him as an authorised user of such geographical indication.

(2) The application under sub-section (1) shall be accompanied by a statement and such documents of facts as may be prescribed and required by the Registrar to determine as to whether such person is the producer of the goods referred to in that sub-section and such fee as may be prescribed.

(3) The provisions of this Chapter relating to-

(a) the filing and examination of the application;

(b) the refusal and acceptance of registration;

(c) withdrawal of acceptance of application;

(d) advertisement of application;

(e) opposition to registration;

(f) correction or error in an amendment of the application and

(g) registration.

Shall apply in respect of the application and registration of authorised users referred to in sub-section (1) in the same manner as they apply for the application for registration and registration of the geographical indication.

Section 18. Duration, renewal, Removal and Restoration of registration

(1) The registration of a geographical indication shall be for a period of ten years, but may be renewed from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) The registration of an authorised user shall be for a period of ten years or for the period till the date on which the registration of the geographical indication in respect of which the authorised user is registered expires, whichever is earlier.

(3) The Registrar shall, on application made in the prescribed manner, by the registered proprietor or by the authorised user and within the prescribed period and subject to the payment of the prescribed fee, renew the registration of the geographical indication or authorised user, as the case may be, for a period of ten years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred to as the expiration of the last registration).

(4) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, the Registrar shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor or the authorised user, as the case may be, of the date of expiration and the conditions as the payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained, and, if at the expiration of time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied with, the Registrar may remove the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, from the register.

Provided that the Registrar shall not remove the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, from the register, if an application is made in the prescribed form and the prescribed fee and surcharge is paid within six months from the expiration of the last registration of the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, and shall renew the registration of geographical indication or the authorised user as the case may be, for a period of ten years under sub-section (3).

(5) Where a geographical indication or authorised user, as the case may be, has been removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed fee, the Registrar shall, after six months and within one year from the expiration of the last registration of the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, on receipt of an application in the prescribed form and on payment of the prescribed fee, if satisfied that it is just to do so, restore the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, to the register and renew registration of the geographical indication or authorised user, as the case may be, either generally or subject to such condition or limitation as he thinks fit to impose, for a period of ten years from the expiration of the last registration.

Section 19. Effect of Removal from Register for Failure to Pay fee for renewal

Where a geographical indication has been removed from the register for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose of any application for the registration of another geographical indication during one year, next after the date of removal, be deemed to be a ‘geographical indication already on the register, unless the tribunal is satisfied either-

(a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the geographical indication which has been removed within the two years immediately preceding its removal; or

(b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the geographical indication which is the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the geographical indication which has been removed.

Chapter IV – Effect of Registration

Section 20. No action for infringement of unregistered geographical indication

(I) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered geographical indication.

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off goods as the goods of another person or the remedies in respect thereof.

Section 21. Rights conferred by registration

(I) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the registration of a geographical indication shall, if valid, give,-

(a) to the registered proprietor of the geographical indication and the authorised user or users thereof the right to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the geographical indication in the manner provided by this Act;

(b) to the authorised user thereof the exclusive right to the use of the geographical indication in relation to the goods in respect of which the geographical indication is registered.

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a geographical indication given under clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall be subject to any condition and limitation to which the registration is subject.

(3) Where the two or more persons are authorised users of geographical indications, which are identical with or nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those geographical indications shall not (except so far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register) be deemed to have been acquired by anyone of those persons as against any other of those persons merely by registration of the geographical indications, but each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other persons as he would have if he were the sole authorised user.

Section 22. Infringement or registered geographical indications

(1) A registered geographical indication is infringed by a person who, not being an authorised user thereof,-

(a) uses such geographical indication by any means in the designations or presentation of goods that indicates or suggests that such goods originate in a geographical area other than the true place of origin of such goods in a manner which misleads the persons as to the geographical origin of such goods; or

(b) uses any geographical indication in such manner which constitutes an act of unfair competition including passing off in respect of registered geographical indication.

Explanation 1:- For the purposes of this clause, “act of unfair competition” means any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters.

Explanation 2:- For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the following acts shall be deemed to be acts of unfair competition, namely:-

(i)all acts of such a nature as to create confusion by any means whatsoever with the establishment, the goods or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;

(ii) false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment, the goods or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;

(iii) geographical indications, the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the persons as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity, of the goods;

(b) uses another geographical indication to the goods which, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, falsely represents to the persons that the goods originate in the territory, region or locality in respect of which such registered geographical indication relates.

(2) The Central Government may, if it thinks necessary so to do for providing additional protection to certain goods or classes of goods under sub-section (3), by notification in the Official Gazette, specify such goods or class or classes of goods, for the purposes of such protection.

(3) Any person who is not an authorised user of a geographical indication registered under this Act in respect of the goods or any class or classes of goods notified under sub-section (2), uses any other geographical indication to such goods or class or classes of goods not originating in the place indicated by such other geographical indication or uses such other geographical indication to such goods or class or classes of goods even indicating true origin of such goods or uses such other geographical indication to such goods or class or classes of goods in translation of the true place of origin or accompanied by expression such as “kind”, “style”, “imitation”, or the like expression, shall infringe such registered geographical indication.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, where the goods in respect of which a geographical indication has been registered are lawfully acquired by a person other than the authorised user of such geographical indication, further dealings in those goods by such person including processing or packaging, shall not constitute an infringement of such geographical indication, except where the condition of goods is impaired after they have been put in the market.

Section 23. Registration to be prima facie Evidence of validity

(1) In all legal proceedings relating to a geographical indication, the certificate of registration granted in this regard by the Registrar under this Act, being a copy of the entry in the register under the seal of the Geographical Indications Registry, shall be prima facie evidence of the validity thereof and be admissible in all courts and before the Appellate Board without further proof or production of the original.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to be affect of the right of action in respect of an unregistered geographical indication.

Section 24. Prohibition of assignment or transmission, etc.

Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, any right to a registered geographical indication shall not be the subject matter of assignment, transmission, licensing, pledge, mortgage or any such other agreement;

Provided that on the death of an authorised user his right in a registered geographical indication shall devolve on his successor in title under the law for the time being in force.

Chapter V – Special Provisions Relating to Trade Marks and Prior Users

Section 25. Prohibition of registration of geographical indication as trade mark

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Trade Marks Act, 1999, the Registrar of Trade Marks referred to in Section 3 of that Act, shall, suo motu or at the request of an interested party, refuse or invalidate the registrations of a trade mark which-

(a) contains or consists of a geographical indication with respect to the goods or class or classes of goods not originating in the territory of a country , or a region or locality in that territory which such geographical indication indicates, if use of such geographical indications in the trade mark for such goods, is of such a nature as to confuse or mislead the persons as to the true place of origin of such goods or class or classes of goods;

(b) Contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying goods or class or classes of goods notified under sub-section (2) of Section 22.

Section 26. Protection to certain Trade marks

(1) Where a trade mark contains or consists of a geographical indication and has been applied for or registered in good faith under the law relating to trade marks for the time being in force, or where rights to such trade mark have been acquired through use in good faith either-

(a) Before the commencement of this Act; or

(b) Before the date of filing the application for registration of such geographical indication under this Act; nothing contained in this Act shall prejudice the registrability or the validity of the registration of such trade mark under the law relating to the trade marks for the time being in force, or the right to use such trade mark, on the ground that such trade mark is identical with or similar to such geographical indication.

(2) Nothing contained in this Act shall apply in respect of a geographical indication with respect to goods or class or classes of goods for which such geographical indication is identical with the term customary in common language as the common name of such goods in any part of India on or before the 1st day of January, 1995.

(3) Nothing contained in this Act shall in any way prejudice the right of any person to use, in the course of trade, that person’s name or the name of that person’s predecessor in business, except where such name is used in such a manner as to confuse or mislead the people.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Trade Marks Act, 1999 or in this Act, no action in connection with the use or registration of a trade mark shall be taken after the expiry of five years from the date on which such use or registration infringes any geographical indication registered under this Act has become known to the registered proprietor or authorised user registered in respect of such geographical indication under this Act or after the date of registration of the trade mark under the said Trade Marks Act subject to the condition that the trade mark has been published under the provisions of the said Trade Marks Act, 1999 or the rules made there under by that date, if such date is earlier than the date on which such infringement became known to such proprietor or authorised user and such geographical indication is not used or registered in bad faith.

Chapter VI – Rectification and Correction of the Register

Section 27. Power to cancel or vary registration and to rectify the register

(1) On application made in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar by any person aggrieved, the tribunal may make such order as it may think fit for cancelling or varying the registration of a geographical indication or authorised user on the ground of any contravention, or failure to observe the condition entered on the register in relation thereto.

(2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, and the tribunal may make such order for making, expunging or varying the entry as it may think fit.

(3) The tribunal may in any proceeding under this section decide any question that may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register.

(4) The tribunal, of its own motion, may , after giving notice in the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)

(5) Any order of the Appellate Board rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify the register accordingly.

Section 28. Correction of register

The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor or the authorised user –

(a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor or the authorised user, as the case may be, of a geographical indication, or any other entry relating to the geographical indication on the register;

(b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the association of persons or of producers or any organisation or authority, as the case may be, who is registered as proprietor of a geographical indication on the register;

(c) cancel the entry of a geographical indication on the register;

(d) strike out any goods or class or classes of goods from those in respect of which a geographical indication is registered from the register, and may make any consequential amendment or alteration in the certificate of registration, and for that purpose, may require the certificate of registration to be produced to him.

Section 29. Alteration of Registered geographical indications

(1) The registered proprietor of a geographical indication may apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the geographical indication in any manner not substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit.

(2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the prescribed time from the date of the advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the prescribed manner of the opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so required, decide the matter.

(3) Where leave is granted under this section, the geographical indication as altered shall be advertised in the prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section (2).

Section 30. Adaptation of entries in register to amend or substitute classification of goods

(1) The Registrar shall not make any amendment of the register which would have the effect of adding any goods or classes of goods to those in respect of which a geographical indication is registered (whether in one or
more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or antedating the registration of a geographical indication in respect of any goods:

Provided that this sub-section, shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would not affect any substantial quantity of goods and would not substantially prejudice the rights of any person.

(2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be brought to the notice of the registered proprietor and every authorised user of the geographical indication affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1).

Chapter VII – Appeals to the Appellate Board

Section 31. Appeals to the Appellate Board

(1) Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the Registrar under this Act, or the rules made there under, may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Board within three months from the date on which the order or decision sought to be appealed against is communicated to such person preferring the appeal.

(2) No appeal shall be admitted if it is preferred after the expiry of the period specified under sub-section (1): Provided that an appeal may be admitted after the expiry of the period specified therefore, if the appellant satisfies the Appellate Board that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within the specified period.

(3) An appeal to the Appellate Board shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in the prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order or decision appealed against and such fees as may be prescribed.

Section 32. Bar of jurisdiction of courts, etc.

No court or other authority shall have or, be entitled to, exercise any jurisdiction, powers or authority in relation to the matters referred to in sub-section (1) of section 31.

Section 33. Procedure of the Appellate Board

The provisions of sub-sections (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) of section 84, section 87,section 92, section 95 and section 96 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999, shall apply to the Appellate Board in the discharge of its functions under this Act as they apply to it in the discharge of its functions under the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

Section 34. Procedure for application for rectification etc., before Appellate Board

(1) An application for rectification of the register made to the Appellate Board under section 27 shall be in such form as may be prescribed.
(2) A certified copy of every order or judgment of the Appellate Board relating to a registered geographical indication under this Act shall be communicated to the Registrar by the Appellate Board and the Registrar shall give effect to the order of the Board and shall, when so directed, amend the entries in, or rectify, the register in accordance with such order.

Section 35. Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings

(1) The Registrar shall have the right to appear and be heard –

(a) in any legal proceedings before the Appellate Board in which the relief sought includes alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the Geographical Indications Registry is raised;

(b) in any appeal to the Board from an order of the Registrar on an application for registration of a geographical indication or authorised user –

(i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Registrar or is accepted by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or

(ii) which has been opposed and the Registrar considers that his appearance is necessary in the public interest, and the Registrar shall appear in any case if so directed by the Board.

(2) Unless the Appellate Board otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the practice of the Geographical Indications Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding.

Section 36. Costs of Registrar in proceedings Before Appellate Board

In all proceedings under this Act before the Appellate Board the costs of the Registrar shall be in the discretion of the Board, but the Registrar shall not be ordered to pay the costs of any of the parties.

Chapter VIII – Offences, Penalties and Procedure

Section 37. Meaning of applying geographical indications

(1) A person shall be deemed to apply a geographical indication to goods who-

(a) applies it to the goods themselves; or

(b) applies it to any package in or with which the goods are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture; or

(c) places, encloses or annexes any goods which are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, in or with any package or other thing to which a geographical
indication has been applied; or

(d) uses a geographical indication in any manner reasonably likely to lead to the belief that the goods in connection with which it is used are designated or described by that geographical indication; or

(e) in relation to the goods uses a geographical indication in any sign, advertisement, invoice, catalogue, business letter, business paper, price list or other commercial documents and goods are delivered to a person in pursuance of a request or order made by reference to the geographical indication as so used.

(2) A geographical indication shall be deemed to be applied to goods whether it is woven in, impressed on, or otherwise worked into, or annexed or affixed to, the goods or to any package or other thing.

Section 38. Falsifying and falsely applying geographical indications

(1) A person shall be deemed to falsify a geographical indication who, either, _

(a) without the assent of the authorised user of the geographical indication makes that geographical indication or deceptively similar geographical indication; or

(b) falsifies any genuine geographical indication, whether by alteration, addition, effacement or otherwise.

(2) A person shall be deemed to falsely apply to goods a geographical indication who, without the assent of the authorised user of the geographical indication,-

(a) applies such geographical indication or a deceptively similar geographical indication to goods or any package containing goods;

(b) uses any package bearing a geographical indication which is identical with or deceptively similar to the geographical indication of such authorised user, for the purpose of packing, filling or wrapping therein any goods other than the genuine goods of the authorised user of the geographical indication.

(3) Any geographical indication falsified as mentioned in sub-section (1) or falsely applied as mentioned in sub-section (2), is in this Act referred to as a false geographical indication.

(4) In any prosecution for falsifying a geographical indication or falsely applying a geographical indication to goods, the burden of proving the assent of proprietor shall lie on the accused.

Section 39. Penalty for applying false geographical indications

Any person who, –

(a) falsifies any geographical indication; or

(b) falsely applies to goods any geographical indication; or

(c) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying, a geographical indication; or

(d) applies to any goods to which an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and the address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are manufactured is required to be applied under section 71, a false indication of such country, place, name or address; or

(e) tampers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin which has been applied to any goods to which it is required to be applied under Section 72; or

(f) causes any of the things above-mentioned in this section to be done, shall, unless he proves that he acted, without intent to defraud, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakhs rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Section 40. Penalty for selling goods to which false geographical indication is applied

Any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his possession for sale, goods or things to which any false Geographical indication is applied or which, being required under section 71 to have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or without the indications so required, shall unless he proves,-

(a) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this section, he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the geniuses of the geographical indication or that any offence had been committed in respect of the goods; or

(b) that, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor , he gave all the information in his power with respect to the person from whom he obtained such goods or things; or

(c) That otherwise he had acted innocently, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakhs rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Section 41. Enhanced penalty on second or subsequent conviction

Whoever having already been convicted of an offence under section 39 or section 40 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reason to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees:

Provided further that for the purposes of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made before the commencement of this Act.

Section 42. Penalty for falsely representing a Geographical indication as registered

(1) No person shall make any representation-

(a) with respect to a geographical indication, not being a registered geographical indication, to the effect that it is a registered geographical indication; or

(b) to the effect that a registered geographical indication is registered in respect of any goods in respect of which it is not in fact registered ; or

(c) to the effect that registration of a geographical indication gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any circumstances in which having regard to limitation entered on the register, the registration does not in fact give that right.

(2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

(3) For the purposes of this section the use in India in relation to a geographical indication of the words “registered geographical indication” or any other expression, symbol or sign like “R.G.I.” referring whether expressly or impliedly to registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except-

(a) where that word or other expression, symbol or sign is used in direct association with other words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression, symbol or sign is delineated and indicating that the reference to registration as a geographical indication under the law of a country outside India being a country under the law of which the registration referred to is in fact in force; or

(b) where that other expression, symbol or sign is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or

(c) Where that word is used in relation to a geographical indication registered under the law of a country outside India and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country for use in that country.

Section 43. Penalty for improperly describing a place of business as connected with the Geographical Indications Registry

If any person uses on his place of business, or on any document issued by him, or otherwise, words which would reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected with, the Geographical Indications Registry, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Section 44. Penalty for falsification of entries in the register

If any person makes, or causes to be made, a false entry in the register, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register, or produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Section 45. No offence in certain cases

The provisions of sections 39, 40 and 41 shall in relation to a registered geographical indication or authorised user of such geographical indication, be subject to the rights created or recognised by this Act and no act or omission shall be deemed to be an offence under the aforesaid sections if,-

(a) the alleged offence relates to a registered geographical indication and the act or omission is permitted under this Act; and

(b) the alleged offence relates to a registered geographical indication and the act or omission is permitted under any other law for the time being in force.

Section 46. Forfeiture of goods

(1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 39 or section 40 or section 41 or is acquitted of an offence under section 39 or section 40 on proof that he acted without intend or defraud, or under section 40 on proof of the maters specified in clauses (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) of that section, the court convicting or acquitting him may direct the forfeiture to Government of all goods and things by means of, or in relation to, which the offence has been committed, or but for such proof as aforesaid would have been committed.

(2) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction and an appeal lies against the conviction, an appeal shall lie against the forfeiture also.

(3) When, a forfeiture is directed on acquittal and the goods or things to which the direction relates are of value exceeding fifty rupees, an appeal against the forfeiture may be preferred, within thirty days from the date of the direction, to the court to which in appealable cases appeal lie from sentences of the court which directed the forfeiture.

(4) When forfeiture is directed on a conviction, the court, before whom the person is convicted, may order any forfeited articles to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the court thinks fit.

Section 47. Exemption of certain persons employed in ordinary course of business

Where a person accused of an offence under section 39 proves,-

(a) that in the ordinary course of his business he is employed on behalf of other persons to apply geographical indications, or as the case may be, to make dies, blocks, machines, plates, or other instruments for making, or being used in making, geographical indications;

b) that in the case which is the subject of the charge he was so employed, and was not interested in the goods or other things by way of profit or commission depend on the sale of such goods;

(c) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing the offence charged, he had, at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, no reason to suspect the genuineness of the geographical indication; and

(d) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the persons on whose behalf the geographical indication was applied, he shall be acquitted.

Section 48. Procedure where invalidity of registration is pleaded by the accused

(1) Where the offence charged under section 39 or section 40 or section 41 is in relation to a registered geographical indication and the accused pleads that the registration of the geographical indication is invalid, the following procedure shall be followed:-

(a) if the court is satisfied that such defence is prima facie tenable, it shall not proceed with the charge but shall adjourn the proceeding for three months from the date on which the plea of the accused is recorded to enable the accused to file an application before the Appellate Board under this Act, for the rectification of the register on the ground that the registration is invalid;

(b) if the accused proves to the court that he has made such application within the time so limited or within such further time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the further proceedings in the prosecution shall stand stayed till the disposal of such application for rectification;

(c) if within a period of three months or within such extended time as may be allowed by the court the accused fails to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register, the court shall proceed with the case as if the registration were valid.

(2) Where before the institution of a complaint of an offence referred to in sub section (1), any application for the rectification of the register concerning the geographical indication in question on the ground of invalidity of the registration thereof has already been properly made to and is pending before the tribunal, the court shall stay the further proceedings in the prosecution pending the disposal of the application aforesaid and shall determine the charge against the accused in conformity with the result of the application for rectification in so far as the complainant relies upon the registration of his geographical indication.

Section 49. Offences by companies

(1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company, the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or the officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.- For the purpose of this section,-

(a) “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm

Section 50. Cognizance of certain offences and the powers of police officer for search and seizure

(1) No court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 42 or section 43 or section 44 except on complaint in writing made by the Registrar or any officer authorised by him in writing:

Providing that in relation to clause (b) of subsection (1) of section 42, a court shall take a cognizance of an offence on the basis of a certificate issued by the Registrar to the effect that a registered geographical indication has been represented as registered in respect of any goods in respect of which it is not in fact registered.

(2) No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try an offence under this Act.

(3) The offences under Section 39 or section 40 or section 41 shall be cognizable.

(4) Any police officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police or equivalent, may, if he satisfied that any of the offences referred to in sub-section(3) has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, search and seize without warrant the goods, die, block, machine, plate, other instruments or things involved in committing the offence, wherever found, and all the articles so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be:

Provided that the police officer, before making any search and seizure, shall obtain the opinion of the Registrar on the facts involved in the offence relating to geographical indication and shall abide by the opinion so obtained.

(5) Any person having an interest in any article seized under sub-section(4), may, within fifteen days of such seizure, make an application to the Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, for such article being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the application and the prosecution, shall make such order on the application as he may deem fit.

Section 51. Costs of defence of prosecution

In any prosecution under this Act, the court may order such costs to be paid by the accused to the complainant, or by the complainant to the accused, as the court deemed reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the parties and the costs so awarded shall be recoverable as if they were a fine.

Section 52. Limitation of prosecution

No prosecution for an offence Under this Act shall be commenced after the expiration of three years next after the commission of the offence charged or two years after the discovery thereof by the prosecutor, whichever expiration first happens.

Section 53. Information as to commission of offence

An officer of the Government whose duty it is to take part in the enforcement of the provisions of this Chapter shall not be compelled in any court to say whence he got any information as to the commission of any offence against this Act.

Section 54. Punishment for abatement in India of acts done out of India

If any person, being within India, abets the commission, without India, of any act which, if committed in India, would, under this Act, be an offence, he may be tried for such abetment in any place in India in which he may be found, and be punished therefor with the punishment to which he would be liable if he had himself committed in that place the act which he abetted.

Chapter IX – Miscellaneous

Section 55. Protection of action taken in good faith

No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

Section 56. Certain persons to be public servants

Every person appointed under this Act shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code.

Section 57. Stay of proceedings where the validity of registration of the geographical indication is questioned, etc.,

(1) where in any suit for infringement of a geographical indication the defendant pleads that registration of the geographical indication relating to plaintiff is invalid, the court trying the suit (hereinafter referred to as the court), shall,-

(a) if any proceedings for rectification of the register to the geographical indication relating to plaintiff or defendant are pending before the Registrar or the Appellate Board, stay the suit pending the final disposal of
such proceedings;

(b) if no such proceedings are pending and the court is satisfied that the plea regarding the invalidity of the registration of the geographical indication relating to plaintiff or defendant is prima facie tenable, raise an issue regarding the same and adjourn the case for a period of three months from the date of the framing of the issue in order to enable the party concerned to apply to the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Appellate Board for rectification of the register.

(2) If the party concerned proves to the court that he has made any such application as is referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) within the time specified therein or within such extended time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the trial of the suit shall stand stayed until the final disposal of the rectification proceedings.

(3) If no such application as aforesaid has been made within the time so specified or within such extended time as the court may allow, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the geographical indication concerned shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the court shall proceed with the suit in regard to the other issues in the case.

(4) The final order made in any rectification proceedings referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be binding upon the parties and the court shall dispose of the suit conformably to such order in so far as it relates to the issue as to the validity of the registration of the geographical indication.

(5) The stay of a suit for the infringement of a geographical indication under this section shall not preclude the court from making any interlocutory order (including any order granting an injunction, directing account to be kept, appointing a receiver or attaching any property), during the period of the stray of the suit.

Section 58. Application for rectification of register be made to Appellate Board in certain cases

(1) Where in a suit for infringement of a registered geographical indication the validity of the registration of the geographical indication relating to plaintiff is questioned by the defendant or where in any such suit the plaintiff questions the validity of the registration of the geographical indication relating to defendant, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the geographical indication concerned shall be determined only on an application for the rectification of the register and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 27, such application shall be made to the Appellate Board and not to the Registrar.

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), where an application for rectification of the register is made to the Registrar under Section 27, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the application at any stage of the proceedings to the appellate Board.

Section 59. Implied warranty on sale of indicated goods

Where a geographical indication has been applied to the goods on sale or in the contract for sale of any goods, the seller shall be deemed to warrant that the geographical indication is a genuine geographical indication and not falsely applied, unless the contrary is expressed in writing signed by or on behalf of the seller and delivered at the time of the sale of goods on contract to and accepted by the buyer.

Section 60. Powers of Registrar

In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar,-

(a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purposes of receiving evidence, administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witness;

(b)the Registrar may, subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 87, make such orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such order shall be executable as a decree of a civil court;

(c) The Registrar may, on an application made in the prescribed manner, review his own decision.

Section 61. Exercise of discretionary power by Registrar

Subject to the provisions of section 64, the Registrar shall not exercise any discretionary or other power vested in him by this Act or the rules made thereunder adversely to a person applying for the exercise of that power without (if so required by that person within the prescribed time) giving to the person an opportunity of being heard.

Section 62. Evidence before Registrar

In any proceeding under this Act before the Registrar, evidence shall be given by affidavit:
Provided that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit.

Section 63. Death of party to a proceeding

If a person who is a party to a proceeding under this Act (not being a proceeding before the Appellate Board or a court) dies pending the proceeding, the Registrar may, on request, and on proof to this satisfaction of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the proceeding his successor in interest in his place, or, if the Registrar is of opinion that the interest of the deceased person is sufficiently represented by the surviving parties, permit the proceeding to continue without the substitution of his successor in interest.

Section 64. Extension of time

(1) If the Registrar is satisfied, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and accompanied by the prescribed fee, that there is sufficient cause for extending the time for doing any act (not being a time expressly provided in the Act), whether the time so specified has expired or not, he may, subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time and inform the parties accordingly

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to require the Registrar to hear the parties before disposing of an application for extension of time, and no appeal shall lie from any order of the Registrar under this section.

Section 65. Abandoned

Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act, the Registrar may, by notice require the applicant to remedy the default within a time specified and after giving him, if so, desired, an opportunity of being heard, treat the application as abandoned, unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

Section 66. Suit for infringement, etc., to be instituted before district court

(1) No suit,-

(a) for the infringement of a registered geographical indication; or

(b)relating to any right in a registered geographical indication; or

(c) for passing of arising out of the use by the defendant of any geographical indication which is identical with or deceptively similar to the geographical indication relating to the plaintiff, whether registered or unregistered, shall be instituted in any court inferior to a district court having jurisdiction to try the suit.

(2) For the purpose of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1), a “district court having jurisdiction” shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or any other law for the time being in force, include a district court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction, at the time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or proceeding, or, where there are more than one such persons any of them, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

Explanation.- For the purposes of sub-section (2), “person” includes the registered proprietor and the authorised user.

Section 67. Relief in suit for infringement or for passing off

(1) The relief which a court may grant in any suit for infringement or for passing off referred to in section 66 includes injunction (subject to such terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and at the option of the plaintiff, either damages or account of profits, together with or without any order for the delivery- up of the infringing labels and indications for destruction or erasure.

(2) The order of injunction under sub-section(1) may include an ex parte injunction or any interlocutory order for any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) for discovery of documents;

(b) preserving of infringing goods, documents or other evidence which are related to the subject matter of the suit;

(c) restraining the defendant from disposing of or dealing with his assets in a manner which may adversely affect plaintiff’s ability to recover damages, costs or other pecuniary remedies which may be finally awarded to the plaintiff.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the court shall not grant relief by way of damages (other than nominal damages) on account of profits in any case-

(a) where in a suit for infringement the defendant satisfies the court-

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the geographical indication complained of in the suit he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the geographical indication of the plaintiff was on the register; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff’s right in the geographical indication, he forthwith ceased to use the geographical indication in relation to good in respect of which it was registered; or

(b) where in a suit for passing off, the defendant satisfies the court-

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the geographical indication complained of in the suit he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the geographical indication relating to the plaintiff was in use; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the geographical indication relating to the plaintiff he forthwith ceased to use the geographical indication complained of.

Section 68. Authorised user to be impleaded in certain proceedings

(1) In every proceeding under Chapter VI or under section 31, every authorised user of a geographical indication to which such proceeding relate, who is not himself an applicant in respect of any proceeding under that Chapter or section, shall be made a party to the proceeding.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, an authorised user so made a party to the proceeding shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceeding .

Section 69. Evidence of entries in register, etc., and things done by the Registrar

(1) A copy of any entry in the register or of any document referred to in sub-section(1) of section 78 purporting to be certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Geographical Indications Registry shall be admitted in evidence in all courts and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

(2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that he is authorised by this Act or he rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or things having been done or not done.

Section 70. Registrar and other officers not compellable to produce register, etc.,

The Registrar or any officer of the Geographical Indications Registry shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special cause.

Section 71. Power to require goods to show indication of origin

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, require that goods of any class specified in the notification which are made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, or, which are made or produced within the limits of India, shall, from such date as may be appointed by the notification not being less than three months from its issue, have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced, or of the name and address of the manufacturer or the person for whom the goods were manufactured.

(2) The notification may specify the manner in which such indication shall be applied, that is to say, whether to goods themselves or in any other manner, and the times or occasions on which the presence of the indication shall be necessary, that is to say, whether on importation only, or also at the time of sale, whether by wholesale or retail or both.

(3) No notification under this section shall be issued, unless application is made for its issue by persons or associations substantially representing the interests of dealers in, or manufacturers, producers, or users of, the goods concerned, or unless the Central Government is otherwise convinced that it is necessary in the public interest to issue the notification, with or without such inquiry, as the Central Government may consider necessary.

(4) The provisions of sectionn23 of the General Clauses Act,1897 shall apply to the issue of a notification under this section as they apply to the making of a rule or bye-law the making of which is subject to the condition of previous publication.

(5) A notification under this section shall not apply to goods made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, if in respect of those goods, the Commissioner of Customs is satisfied at the time of importation that they are intended for exportation whether after transshipment in or transit through India or otherwise.

Section 72. Certificate of validity

If in any legal proceedings for rectification of the register before the Appellate Board a decision is on contest given in favour of the registered proprietor or, as the case may be, authorised user of the geographical indication on the issue as to the validity of the registration of the geographical indication or the authorised user, the Appellate Board may grant a certificate to that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then, in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said validity comes into question the said proprietor or the authorised user, as the case may be, on obtaining a final order or judgement in his favour affirming validity of the registration of the geographical indication or the authorised user, as the case may be, shall unless the said final order or judgement for sufficient reason directs otherwise, be entitled to his full cost charges and expenses as between legal practitioner and client.

Section 73. Groundless threats of legal proceedings

(1) Where a person, by means of circulars, advertisement or otherwise, threatens a person with an action or proceeding for infringement of a geographical indication which is registered, or alleged by the first mentioned person to be registered, or with some other like proceeding, a person aggrieved, may, whether the person making the threats is or is not the registered proprietor or the authorised user of the geographical indication, bring a suit against the first-mentioned person and may obtain a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable, and an injunction against the continuance of the threats and may recover such damages (if any) as he has sustained, unless the first-mentioned person satisfies the court that the geographical indication is registered and that the acts in respect of which the proceedings were threatened, constitute, or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of the geographical indication.

(2) The last preceding sub-section does not apply if the registered proprietor of the geographical indication or an authorised user thereof with due diligence commences and prosecutes an action against the person threatened for infringement of the geographical indication.

(3) Nothing in this section shall render a legal practitioner or a registered geographical indications agent liable to an action under this section in respect of an act done by him in his professional capacity on behalf of a client.

(4) A suit under sub-section (1) shall not be instituted in any court inferior to a district court.

Section 74. Address for service

An address for service stated in an application or notice of opposition shall, for the purposes of the application or notice of opposition be deemed to be the address of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be, and all documents in relation to the application or notice of opposition may be served by leaving them at or sending them by post to the address for service of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be.

Section 75. Trade usages, etc., to be taken into consideration

In any proceeding relating to a geographical indication, the tribunal shall admit evidence of the usages of the trade concerned and of any relevant geographical indication legitimately used by other persons.

Section 76. Agents

Where, by or under this Act, any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required to be done before the Registrar by any person, the act may, subject to the rules made in this behalf, be done instead of by that person himself, by a person duly authorised in the prescribed manner, who is,-

(a) a legal practitioner, or

(b) a person registered in the prescribed manner as a geographical indications agent, or

(c) a person in the sole and regular employment of the principal.

Section 77. Indexes

There shall be kept under the directions and supervision of the Registrar,-

(a) an index of registered geographical indications,

(b) an index of geographical indications in respect of which applications for registration are pending,

(c) an index of the names of the proprietors of registered geographical indications, and

(d) an index of the names of authorised users.

Section 78. Documents open to public inspection

(1) The following documents, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, be open to public inspection at the Geographical Indications Registry, namely:-

(a) the register and any document upon which any entry in the register is based;

(b) every notice of opposition to the registration of a geographical indication, application for rectification before the Registrar, counterstatement thereto, and any affidavit or document filed by the parties in any proceedings before the Registrar;

(c) the indexes mentioned in section 77; and

(d) such other documents as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify:

Provided that where such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer, the inspection of such register under this section shall be made by inspecting the computer print out of the relevant entry in the register so maintained on computer.

(2) Any person may, on an application to the Registrar and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, obtain a certified copy of any entry in the register or any document referred to in sub-section(1).

Section 79. Reports of Registrar to be placed before Parliament

The Central Government shall cause to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution by or under this Act.

Section 80. Fees and surcharge

(1) There shall be paid in respect of applications and registrations and other matters under this Act such fees and surcharge as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Registrar, the Registrar shall not do that act until the fee has been paid.

(3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the Geographical Indications Registry, the document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the registry until the fee has been paid.

Section 81. Savings in respect of certain matters in Chapter VIII

Nothing in Chapter VIII shall-

(a) exempt any person from any suit or other proceeding which might, but for anything in that Chapter, be brought against him, or

(b) be construed so as to render liable to any prosecution or punishment any servant of a master resident in India who in good faith acts in obedience to the instructions of such master, and, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, has given full information as to his master and as to the instructions which he has received from his master.

Section 82. Declarations as to title of geographical indication not registrable under the Registration Act,1908

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Registration Act,1908, no document declaring or purporting to declare any title of a person to a geographical indication other than a registered geographical indication shall be registered under that Act.

Section 83. Government to be bound

The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government.

Section 84. Special provisions relating to applications for registration from citizens of convention countries

(1) With a view to the fulfilment of a treaty, convention or arrangement with any country or a country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter- Governmental Organisations outside India which affords to citizens of India similar privileges as granted to its own citizens, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such country or group of countries or union of countries or
Inter-Governmental Organisations to be a convention country or convention countries for the purposes of this Act.

(2) Nothing contained in this Act or the Trade Marks Act,1999 shall prevent a continued and similar use of geographical indication relating to a country or a country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or any Inter-Governmental Organisations, as the case may be, notified under sub-section(1) identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods by any citizen or domiciliary of such country who has used that geographical indication in continuous manner with regard to such goods or any goods relating to such goods, as the case may be, in any part of the territory of that country either-

(a) for at least ten years preceding the 15th day of April,1994; or

(b) in good faith preceding the date referred to in clause (a).

Section 85. Provisions as to reciprocity

Where any country or a country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or any Inter- Governmental Organisation specified by the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in respect of the registration and protection of geographical indications as it accords to its own nationals, no nationals of such country or a country which is a member of a group of countries or union or countries or Inter-Governmental Organisations, as the case may be, shall be entitled-

(a) to apply for the registration of, or be registered as the proprietor of geographical indications;

(b) to apply for registration or be registered as an authorised under of a geographical indication.

Section 86. Powers of Central Government to remove difficulties

(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be necessary for removing the difficulty:

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the commencement of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Section 87. Power to make rules

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to the condition of previous publication, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) the matters to be included in the Register of Geographical Indications under sub-section(1), and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of such register in computer floppies or diskettes under sub-section(2) of section6;

(b) the manner of incorporation of particulars relating to registration of geographical indications in Part A under sub-section (2) and the manner of incorporation of particulars relating to the registration of the authorised users under sub-section(3) of section 7;

(c) the classification of goods and the manner of publication of the alphabetical index of classification of goods and the definite territory or locality or region for the purpose of registration of geographical indications under sub-section(1) of section 8;

(d) the form in which and the manner in which an application for registration of a geographical indication may be made and the fees which may accompany the application under sub-section (1) and the particulars to be made in the statement of producers of goods who proposes to be initially registered with the registration under clause (f) of subsection (2) of section 11;

(e) the manner publication of advertisement of accepted application, for registration of geographical indications, etc., under sub-section(1), and the manner of notifying the corrections or amendments made in the application under sub-section(2) of section 13;

(f) the manner in which and the fee which may accompany an application and the manner of giving notice under sub-section(1) and the manner of sending counter statement under sub-section (2) and the manner of submissions of evidence and the time therefore under sub-section(4) of section 14;

(g) the form of certificate of registration under subsection (2) and the manner of giving notice to the applicant under sub-section(3) of section 16;

(h) the manner of applying for registration as an authorised user under sub-section(1) and the manner of submitting statements and documents along with such application and the fee which may accompany such application under sub-section(2) of section 17;

(i) the manner of making application, the time within which such application is to be made and the fee payable with each application, under sub-section (3) and the time within which the Registrar shall send notice and the manner of such notice under subsection (4) and the form in which and the fee which may accompany an application for renewal to be made under sub-section(5) of section 18;

(j) the manner of making applications under sub-sections (1) and (2) the manner of giving notice under subsection (4) and the manner of service of notice of rectification under sub-section (5) of section 27;

(k) the manner of making an application for correction, etc., under section 28;

(l) the manner of making an application under subsection (1), the manner of advertising an application under sub-section (1), the time and manner of notice by which an application may be opposed under subsection (2)and (3) of section 29;

(m) the manner of advertisement under sub-section(2) of section 30;

(n) the form of making an appeal, the manner of verification and the fee payable under sub-section(3) of section 31;

(o) the form in which an application for rectification shall be made, under sub-section (1) of section 34;

(p) the manner of making an application for review under clause (c) of section 60;

(q) the time within which an application is to be made to the Registrar for exercising his discretionary power under Section 61;

(r) the manner of making an application and the fee payable therefore under sub-section(1) of section 64;

(s) the manner of authorising any person to act and the manner of registration of a geographical indications agent under section 76;

(t) the fee and surcharge payable for applications and registrations and other matters under sub-section(1) of section 80;

(u) any other matter which is required to be, or may be, prescribed.

(3) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

The Cable Television Networks (Regulations) Ordinance Act, 1995

Chapter I PRELIMINARY

1.Short title, extent and commencement –

(1) This ordinance may be called the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Ordinance, 1995.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 29th day of September, 1994

COMMENTS

The Ordinance is a special penal law. It extends to all the States as well as the Union Territories. The State of Jammu and Kashmir is no exception. This Ordinance came into force on 29th September, 1994, the date of its promulgation by the President

2. Definition

In this Ordinance, unless the context otherwise requires –

1[(a) “authorised officer” means, within his local limits of jurisdiction,—

(i) a District Magistrate, or

(ii) a Sub-divisional Magistrate, or

(iii) a Commissioner of Police,

and includes any other officer notified in the Official Gazette, by the Central Government or the State Government, to be an authorised officer for such local limits of jurisdiction as may by determined by that Government;]

2(aa)“Cable operator” means any person who provides cable service through a cable television network or otherwise controls or is responsible for the management and operation of a cable television network.

(b)“Cable service” means the transmission by cables of programmes including re-transmission (by cables of any broadcast television signals):

(c)“Cable television network” means any system consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation, control and distribution equipment, designed to provide cable service for reception by multiple subscribers.

(d)“Company” means a company as defined in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 0f 1956)

(e)“Person” means –

(i)An individual who is a citizen in India

(ii)An association of individuals or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, whose members are citizens of India

(iii)A company in which not less than fifty one per cent of the paid up share capital is held by the citizens of India.

(a)“Prescribed” means by rules made under this Ordinance.

(b)“Programme” means any television broadcast and includes-

(i)Exhibition of films, features, dramas, advertisement and serials through video cassette recorders or video cassette players. (ii)Any audio or visual or audio-visual live performance or presentation, and the expression “programming service” shall be construed accordingly.

(a)“Registering authority” means such authority as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify to perform the functions of the registering authority under this Ordinance.

(b)“Subscriber” means a person who receives the signals of cable television network at a place indicated by him to the cable operator, without further transmitting it to any other person.

COMMENTS

Clause (a):

“Cable Operator” means any person who-

(i)Provides cable service through a cable television network, or-

(ii)Otherwise controls the management and operation of a cable television network, or

(iii)Is responsible for the management and operation of a cable television network

Clause (b):

(i)Means the transmission by cables of programmes, and (ii)Includes the re-transmission by cables of any broadcast television signals.

Clause (h):

The Head Post Master of a Head Post Office has been notified as the Registering Authority, vide S.O. 718 (E) dated 29.9.1994

Clause (I):

A person who receives the signals of cable television network and further transmits such signals to any other person, cannot be called “subscriber”.

COMMENTS

The Head Post Master of a Head Post Office of the area within whose territorial jurisdiction the office of the cable operator is situated, has been notified as the Registering Authority, vide S.O. 718 (E), dated 29th September, 1994.

————————-

1. Ins. by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

2. Clause (a) re-lettered as clause (aa) by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

Chapter II REGULATION OF CABLE TELEVISION NETWORK

3.Cable television network not to be operated except after registration-

No person shall operate a cable television network unless he is registered as a cable operator under this Ordinance:

Provided that a person operating a cable television network, immediately before the commencement of this Ordinance, may continue to do so for a period of ninety days from such commencement, and if he has made an application for registration as a cable operator under section 4 within the said period, till he is registered under that section or the registering authority refuses to grant registration to him under that section.

COMMENTS

A person must get himself registered as cable operator under this Ordinance, for operating a cable television network,

However, a person operating a cable television network immediately before the commencement of the Ordinance, may continue to do so-

(a)For a period of 90 days from such commencement, and

(b)Till-

(c)He is registered under section 4 (3), or (i)The registering authority refuses to grant registration under proviso to section 4 (3) to him.

4. Registration as cable operator – –

(1) Any person who is operating or is desirous of operating a cable television network may apply for registration as cable operator to the registering authority.

(2)An application under sub section (1) shall be made in such form and be accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed.

(3)On receipt of the application, the registering authority shall satisfy itself that the applicant has furnished all the required information and on being so satisfied, register the applicant as a cable operator and grant to him a certificate of such registration. Provided that the registering authority may, for reasons to be recorded in writing and communicated to the applicant, refuse to grant registration to him if it is satisfied that he does not fulfill the condition specified in clause (e) of section 2.

COMMENTS

An application for registration as a cable operator has to be made in Form-1 accompanies by a fee of Rupees fifty only ( Indian Postal Order only ) to the Head Post Master of the area within whose territorial jurisdiction the office of the cable operator is situated.

Registration shall be valid for 12 months and also renewable. The provision of Rule 3 of the Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994 shall apply mutatis mutandis to an application for renewal of the registration.

The registering authority (Head Post Master) concerned – Shall register the applicant as a cable operator and grant to him a certificate of registration in Form 3 or,

May, for reasons to be recorded in writing and communicated in Form 4 to the applicant, refuse to grant registration to him.

4A. Transmission of programmes through addressable system, etc.-

1[4A. Transmission of programmes through addressable system, etc.(1) Where the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public interest to do so, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make it obligatory for every cable operator to transmit or retransmit programme of any pay channel through an addressable system with effect from such date2 as may be specified in the notification and different dates may be specified for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.

(2) If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public interest so to do, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify one or more free-to-air channels to be included in the package of channels forming basic service tier and any or more such channels may be specified, in the notification, genre-wise for providing a programme mix of entertainment, information, education and such other programmes.

(3) The Central Government may specify in the notification referred to in sub-section (2), the number of free-to-air channels to be included in the package of channels forming basic service tier for the purposes of that sub-section and different members may be specified for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.

(4) If the Central Government is satisfied that it is necessary in the public interest so to do, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify the maximum amount which a cable operator may demand from the subscriber for receiving the programmes transmitted in the basic service tier provided by such cable operator.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (4), the Central Government may, for the purposes of that sub-section, specify in the notification referred to in that sub-section different maximum amounts for different States, cities, towns or areas, as the case may be.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, programmes of basic service tier shall be receivable by any subscriber on the receiver set of a type existing immediately before the commencement of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002 without any addressable system attached with such receiver set in any manner.

(7) Every cable operator shall publicise, in the prescribed manner, to the subscribers the subscription rates and the periodic intervals at which such subscriptions are payable for receiving each pay channel provided by such cable operator.

(8) The cable operator shall not require any subscriber to have a receiver set of a particular type to receive signals of cable television network:

Provided that the subscriber shall use an addressable system to be attached to his receiver set for receiving programmes transmitted on pay channel.

(9) Every cable operator shall submit a report to the Central Government in the prescribed form and manner containing the information regarding—

(i) the number of total subscribers;

(ii) subscription rates;

(iii) number of subscribers receiving programmes transmitted in basic service tier or particular programme or set of programmes transmitted on pay channel,

in respect of cable services provided by such cable operator through a cable television network, and such report shall be submitted periodically at such intervals as may be prescribed and shall also contain the rate of amount, if any, payable by the cable operator to any broadcaster.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) “addressasble system” means an electronic device or more than one electronic devices put in an integrated system through which signals of cable television network can be sent in encrypted or unencrypted form, which can be decoded by the device or devices at the premises of the subscriber within the limits of authorisation made, on the choice and request of such subscriber, by the cable operator to the subscriber;

(b) “basic service tier” means a package of free-to-air channels provided by a cable operator, for a single price to the subscribers of the area in which his cable television network is providing service and such channels are receivable for viewing by the subscribers on the receiver set of a type existing immediately before the commencement of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Amendment Act, 2002 without any addressable system attached to such receiver set in any manner;

(c) “channel” means a set of frequencies used for transmission of a programme;

(d) “encrypted”, in respect of a signal of cable television network, means the changing of such signal in a systematic way so that the signal would be unintelligible without a suitable receiving equipment and the expression “unencrypted” shall be construed accordingly;

(e) “free-to-air-channel”, in respect of a cable television network, means a channel, the reception of which would not require the use of any addressable system to be attached with the receiver set of a subscriber;

(f) “pay channel”, in respect of a cable television network, means a channel the reception of which by the subscriber would require the use of an addressable system to be attached to his receiver set.]

Comments

Vide S.O. 39(E) dated 14th January, 2003 the Central Government notifies the 15th day of January, 2003 as the date within six months from which it shall be obligatory for every cable operator to transmit/re-transmit programmes of every pay channel through an addressable system in the areas specified below, namely:—

1. Chennai Metropolitan area; 2. Municipal Council of Greater Mumbai area; 3. Kolkata Metropolitan area; 4. National Capital Territory of Delhi.

——————–

1. Ins. by Act 2 of 2003, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 31-12-2002).]

2. 31st December, 2006, vide S.O. 1231(E), dated 31st July, 2006, published in the Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Sec. 3(ii), dated 31st July, 2006.

5. Programme Code –

No person shall transmit or re-transmit through a cable service any programme unless such programme is in conformity with the prescribed programme code.

1[***]

——————

1. Proviso omitted by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

6. Advertisement Code .-

No person shall transmit or re-transmit through a cable service and advertisement unless such advertisement is in conformity with the prescribed advertisement code.

Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to the programmes of foreign satellite channels which can be received without the use of any specialised gadgets or decoder.

COMMENTS

No person shall have a right to transmit or re-transmit through a cable service any programme which is not in conformity with the Advertising Code prescribed under rule 7 of the Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994.

Programmes of foreign satellite channels which can be received without the use of any specialised gadgets or decoder, are, however, exempted from the operation of this section.

7.Maintenance of register-

Every cable operator shall maintain register in the prescribed form indicating therein in brief the programmes transmitted or re-transmitted through the cable service during a month and such register shall be maintained by the cable operator for a period of one year after the actual transmission or re-transmission of the said programmes.

COMMENTS

It is mandatory for every cable operator to maintain a register in Form 5 prescribed under rule 8 of the Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994.

8.Compulsory transmission of two Doordarshan Channels —

(1) Every cable operator using a dish antenna or Television Receiver only shall, form the commencement f this Ordinance, re- transmit at least two Doordarshan channels of his choice through the cable service. (2)The Doordarshan channels referred to in sub section (1) shall be re-transmitted without any deletion or alteration of any programme transmitted on such channels.

COMMENTS

Every cable operator who uses a dish antenna or Television Receiver only, is bound-

(i)To re-transmit at least two Doordarshan channels of his choice through the Cable service (ii)Without any deletion or alteration of any programme transmitted on such channles, from the commencement of this Ordinance

COMMENTS

It is mandatory for every cable operator to maintain a register in Form 5 prescribed under rule 8 of the Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994.

9.Use of standard equipment in cable television network-

No cable operator shall, on and from the date of the expiry of a period of three years from the date of establishment and publication of the Indian Standard by the Bureau of Indian Standards in accordance with the provisions of the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 (63 of 1986) use any equipment in his cable television network unless such equipment conforms to the said Indian Standard.

COMMENTS

On and from the date of expiry of a period of 3 years from the date of establishment and publication of the Indian Standard by the BIS, every cable operator shall be under a statutory obligation to use any equipment in his cable television work, which must conform to the said Indian Standard.

10.Cable television network not to interfere with any telecommunication system-

Every cable operator shall ensure that the cable television network being operated by him does not interfere, in any way, with the functioning of the authorised telecommunication system.

COMMENTS

A duty in case on every cable operator to ensure that his cable television network does not interfere, in any way, with the functioning of the authorised telecommunication systems.

Chapter III SEIZURE AND CONFISCATION OF CERTAIN EQUIPMENT

11. Power to seize equipment used for operating the cable television network –

(1) If any officer, not below the rank of a Group,’A’ officer of the Central Government authorised in this behalf by the Government (hereinafter referred to as the authorised officer) has reason to believe that the provisions of section 3 have been or are being contravened by any cable operator, he may seize the equipment being used by such cable operator for operating the cable television network.

(2)No such equipment shall be retained by the authorised officer for a period exceeding ten days from the date of its seizure unless the approval of the District Judge within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such seizure has been made, has been obtained for such retention.

COMMENTS

The authorised officer may, if he has reason to believe that-

(i)The provisions of section 3 have been contravened by any cable operator, or

(ii)The provisions of section3 are being contravened by any cable operator seize the equipment being used by such cable television network.

He is not competent to retain the equipment seized for a period exceeding 10 days from the date of its seizure, without the approval of the District Judge, within the local limits of jurisdiction such seizure was made.

12.Confiscation –

The equipment seized under sub section (1) of section 11 shall be liable to confiscation unless the cable operator from whom the equipment has been seized registered himself as a cable operator under Section 4 within a period of thirty days from the date of seizure of the said equipment.

COMMENTS

Where the cable operator from whom the equipment has been registers himself as a cable operator under Section 4 (i.e. obtained a licence) within a period 30 days from the date of seizure thereof, such seized equipment could not be confiscated.

13.Seizure or confiscation of equipment not to interfere with other punishment-

No seizure or confiscation of equipment referred to in section 11 or section 12 shall prevent the infliction of any punishment to which the person affected thereby is liable under the provisions of this Ordinance. Simultaneously with seizure or confiscation of equipment referred to in section 11 or section 12, any punishment to which the person affected thereby is liable under this Ordinance may also be inflicted on him .

14.Giving of opportunity to the cable operator of seized equipment –

(1) No order adjudicating confiscation of the equipment referred to in section 12 shall be made unless the cable operator has been given a notice in writing , informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to confiscate such equipment and giving him a reasonable opportunity of making a representations in writing , within such reasonable time as may specified in the notice against the confiscation and if he do desires of being heard in the matter.

Provided that where no such notice is giving within a period of ten days from the date of seizure of the equipment, such equipment shall be returned after the expiry of that period to the cable operator form whose possession it was seized. (2)Save as otherwise provided in sub section (1), the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall, so far as may be, apply to every proceeding referred to in sub section (1).

COMMENTS

Before any order adjudicating confiscation of the equipment referred to in section 12 could be validly made, two conditions must be satisfied, namely:-

1.A notice in writing informing him of the grounds on which it is proposed to confiscate such equipment, and

2.A reasonable opportunity of making a representation in writing against the confiscation, have been given to the cable operator. Such notices should also specify-

3.A reasonable time within which “representation” is to be made, and

4.If the cable operator desires of being heard in the matter.

Proviso to sub section (1) mandates that the equipment seized will have to be returned to the cable operator from whose possession it was seized where a notice stipulated in sub section 91) has not been given within 10 days from the date of the seizure thereof.

The provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) shall, so far as may be, apply to every proceeding referred to in sub section, (1) i.e., in relation to adjudicating confiscation.

15. Appeal —

(1) Any person aggrieved by any decision of the court adjudicating of confiscation of the equipment may prefer an appeal of the court to which an appeal lies from the decision of such court.

(2). The appellate court may, after giving the appellant an opportunity of being heard, pass such orders as it thins fit confirming, modifying or revising the decision appealed against or may send back the case with such directions as it may think fit for a fresh decision or adjudication, as the case may be, after taking additional evidence if necessary.

(3)No further appeal shall lie against the order of the court made under sub section(2).

COMMENTS

Any decision of the court adjudicating a confiscation of the equipment is appeasable.

An appeal lies to the court to which an appeal lies from the decision of such court.

Only a person who is aggrieved by the decision of the adjudicating court has right to prefer an appeal.

The period of limitation for filling an appeal is 30 days (not I month).

The appellate court-

(i)Is bound to give the appellant an opportunity of being heard and

(ii) Has powers to confirm, modify or revise the decision appealed against, or to send back the case for a fresh decision or adjudication.

No appeal shall lie against the order of the appellate court.

Chapter IV OFFENCES AND PENALTIES

16.Punishment for contravention of the provision of this Ordinance-

1[(1)] Whoever contravenes any of the provisions of this Act shall be punishable,—

(a) for the first offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees or with both;

(b) for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees.

2[(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), the contravention of section 4A shall be a cognizable offence under this section.]

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1. Section 16 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 2 of 2003, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 31-12-2002).

2. Ins. by Act 2 of 2003, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 31-12-2002).

17.Offences by companies –

(1) Where an offence under this Ordinance has been committed by a company, every person who , at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly. Provided that nothing contained in this sub section shall render any such person liable to any punishment, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub section (1), where any offence under this Ordinance has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any negligence on the part of, any director, manager , secretary or other officer of the company, such director , manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly or other association of individuals, and

Explanation – For the purpose of this section-

(a) “Company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals, and (b)“Director” in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

(b) “director” in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

18.Cognizance of offence –

No court shall take cognizance of any offence punishable under this Act except upon a complaint in writing made 1[by any authorised officer].

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1. Subs. by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 7, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

Chapter V MISCELLANEOUS

19.Power to prohibit transmission of certain programmes in public interest-

Where 1[any authorised officer] thinks it necessary or expedient so to do in the public interest, he may, by order, prohibit any cable operator from transmitting or re-transmitting 2[any programme or channel if, it is not in conformity with the prescribed programme code referred to in section 5 and advertisement code referred to in section 6 or if it is] likely to promote, on grounds of religion, race, language, caste or community or any other ground whatsoever, disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racial, linguistic or regional groups or castes or communities or which is likely to disturb the public tranquillity.

————————

1. Subs. by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 8, for certain words (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

2. Subs. by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 8, for “any particular programme if it is” (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

20. Power to prohibit operation of cable television network in public interest–

1[(1)] Where the Central Government thinks it necessary or expedient so to do in public interest, it may prohibit the operation of any cable television network in such areas as it may, by notification* in the Official Gazette, specify in this behalf.

2[(2) Where the Central Government thinks it necessary or expedient so to do in the interest of the—

(i) sovereignty or integrity of India; or

(ii) security of India; or

(iii) friendly relations of India with any foreign State; or

(iv) public order, decency or morality, it may, by order, regulate or prohibit the transmission or re-transmission of any channel or programme.

(3) Where the Central Government considers that any programme of any channel is not in conformity with the prescribed programme code referred to in section 5 or the prescribed advertisement code referred to in section 6, it may by order, regulate or prohibit the transmission or re-transmission of such programme.]

Comments

The Central Government prohibits the cable television networks which are carrying the programme containing the foreign satellite television channel “TB-6” throughout the country vide G.S.R. 705(E), dated 20th October, 1999.

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (2) of section 20 of the Act, the Central Government has prohibited the transmission/re-transmission of satellite TV channel, namely “REN TV” through Cable Television Networks throughout the country, vide S.O. 349(E), dated 5th March, 2004.

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1. Section 20 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

* The Central Government prohibits the cable television networks which are carrying the programme containing the foreign satellite television channel “TB-6” throughout the country vide Notification No. G.S.R. 705(E), dated 20th October, 1999.

2. Ins. by Act 36 of 2000, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 1-9-2000).

21. Application of other laws not barred–

The provisions of this Ordinance shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (23 of 1940 ) , the Pharmacy Act, 1948 (8 of 1948), the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (12 of 1950), the Drugs (Control) Act, 1950 (26 of 1950), the cinematograph Act, 1952( 37 of 1952) the Drugs and Magic Remedies (objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954 (21 of 1954), the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954), the Prize Competitions Act, 1955 (42 of 1955), the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 if 1957), the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 if 1958), the Indecent Representation of Women ( Prohibition) Act, 1986 (60 of 1986) and the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 ( 68 of 1986).

22.Power to make rules –

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Ordinance. (2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) The form of application and the fee payable under sub section (2) of section 4.

(b)The programme code under section 5.

(c)The advertisement code under Section 6.

(d)The form of register to be maintained by a cable operator under section 7.

(e)Any other matter which is required to be, or may be prescribed.

(3) Every rule made under this Ordinance shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modifications in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be, so, however, that as any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

23. Repeal and savings –

(1) The Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Ordinance , 1994 (Ord. 9 of 1994) is hereby repealed.

Notwithstanding such repeal, anything done or any action taken under the said Ordinance, shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Ordinance

Rules CABLE TELEVISION NETWORKS RULES, 1994

1.Short title and commencement –

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub section (1) of section 22 of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Ordinance, 1944 (9 of 1994), the Central Government makes the following rules, namely:-

1.Short title and commencement – (1) These rules may be called the Cable Television Networks Rules, 1994. (2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette

2. Definitions –

In these rules unless the context otherwise requires –

(a)“Cable operator” means any person who provides cable service through a cable television network of otherwise controls or is responsible for the management and operation of a cable television networks.

(b)‘Cable service” means the transmission by cables of programmes including re-transmission by cables of any broadcast television signals.

(c)“Cable television network” means any system consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signals generation, control and distribution equipment, designed to provide cable service for reception by multiple subscribers.

(d)“Company” means a company defined in section 3 of the Companies Act, 1956.

(e)“Form” means form appended to these rules.

(f)“Person” means:

(i)An individual who is a citizen of India

(ii)An association of individuals or body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, whose members are citizens of India

(iii)A company in which not less than fifty one percent of the paid up share capital is held by the citizens of India.

(a) “Programme” means any television broadcast and includes:

(i)Exhibition of films, features, dramas, advertisement and serials through video cassette recorders or video cassette players.

(ii)Any audio or visual or audio-visual live performance or presentation and the expression “programming service” shall be construed accordingly

(a)“Registering authority” means the registering authority notified under clause (h) of section 2 of the Cable television Networks (Regulation) Ordinance 1994.

(b)“Subscriber” means a person who receives the signal of cable television network at a place indicated by him to the cable operator, without further transmitting it to any other person.

3. Application for registration as a cable television network in India –

(1) Every application for registration as a cable television network in India shall be made in writing in Form 1 and shall be renewable after every twelve months.

(2)The application shall be addressed to the Registering Authority and delivered to his office in Form1.

(3)Every application shall be accompanied by-

(a)A fee of Rs.50/- vide Postal Order No————-dated—————–on Post office and

(b)The requisite documents mentioned in Form 1 and 2.

4.Examination of applications-

(1) on receipt of an application under rule 3 the registering authority shall examine the application having regard to the provisions of section 4 of the Ordinance..

5.Registration –

On being satisfied that the applicant fulfills the provisions of the Ordinance, the registering authority shall issue a registration certificate in Form 3.

Provided that where the registering authority is satisfied that the registration cannot be granted to the applicant, he shall inform the applicant in Form 4.

6.Programme Code –

(1) No programme should be carried in the cable service which –

(i) Offends against good taste or decency

(ii) Contain criticism of friendly countries

(iii) Contains attack on religions or communities or visuals or words contemptuous of religious groups or which promote communal attitudes

(iv) Contains anything obscene, defamatory, deliberate, false and suggestive innuendos and half truths.

(v) Is likely to encourage or incite violence or contains anything against maintenance of law and order or which promote anti-national attitudes.

(vi) Contains anything amounting to contempt of court.

(vii) Contains aspersions against the integrity of the President and judiciary

(viii) Contains anything affecting the integrity of the Nation

(ix) Criticises, maligns or slanders any individuals in person or certain groups,

(x) segments of social, public and moral life of the country.

(xi) Encourages superstition or blind belief.

(xii) Denigrates women through the depiction in any manner of the figure of a woman, her form or body or any part thereof in such a way as to have the effect of being indecent, or derogatory to women, or is likely to deprave, corrupt or injure the public morality or morals.

(xiii) Denigrates children

(xiv) Contain visuals or words reflect a slandering, ironical and snobbish attitude in the portrayal of certain ethnic, linguistic and regional groups.

(xv) Contravenes the provisions of the Cinematograph Act, 1952.

(2) The cable operator should strive to carry porgrammes in his cables service which project women in a positive, leadership role of sobriety, moral and character building qualities.

(3)Programmes meant for adults should normally be carried in the cable service after 11 p.m. and before 6.a.m.

(4)Care should be taken to ensure that programmes meant for children do not contain any bad language or explicit scenes of violence. (5) Programmes unsuitable for children must be carried in the cable service at times when the largest numbers of children are viewing

7. Advertising code –

(1) Advertising carried in the cable service shall be so designed as to conform to the laws of the country and should not offend morality, decency and religious susceptibilities of the subscribers.

(2) No advertisement shall be permitted which –

(i)Derides any race, caste, colour, creed and nationality

(ii)Is against any provision of the Constitution of India

(iii)Tends to incite people to crime, cause disorder or violence or breach of law or glorifies violence or obscenity in any way.

(iv)Presents criminality as desirable

(v)Exploits the national emblem, or any part of the Constitution or the person or personality of a national leader or a State dignitary

(vi)In its depiction of women violates the Constitutional guarantees to all citizens. In particular, no advertisement shall be permitted which projects a derogatory image of women. Women must be portrayed in a manner that emphasises passive, submissive qualities and encourages them to play a subordinate, secondary role in the family and society. The cable operator shall ensure that the portrayal of the female form, in the programmes carried in his cable service is tasteful and aesthetic and is within the well established norms of good taste and decency.

(vii)Exploits social evils like dowry, child marriage

(3)No advertisement shall be permitted the objects whereof are wholly or mainly of a religious or political nature, advertisement must not be directed towards any religious or political end.

(4)The goods or services advertised shall not suffer from any defect or deficiency as mentioned in Consumer Protection Act, 1986.

(5)No advertisement shall contain references which are likely to lead the public to infer that the product advertised or any of its ingredients has some special or miraculous or super-natural property or quality, which is difficult of being proved.

(6)The picture and the audible matter of the advertisement shall not be excessively `loud’.

(7)No advertisement which endangers the safety of children or creates in them many interest in unhealthy practises or shows them begging or in an undignified or indecent manner shall not be carried in he cable service.

(8)Indecent, vulgar, suggestive, repulsive or offensive themes or treatment shall be avoid in all advertisements.

(9)No advertisement which violates the standards of practise for advertising agencies as approved by the Advertising Agencies Association of India, Bombay, form time to time shall be carried in the cable service.

(10)All advertisement should be clearly distinguishable from the programme and should not in any manner interfere with the programme viz. Use of lower part of screen to carry captions, static or moving alongside the programme.

8.Register –

Each cable operator shall maintain a register in Form 5 for each month of the year for which the registration is granted.

The Trade Marks Act, 1999

Chapter 1 Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement. –

(Act No. 47 of 1999)

An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to trade marks, to provide for registration and better protection of trade marks for goods and services and for the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fiftieth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

(1) This Act may be called the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

(2) It extend to the whole of India.

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint:

Provided that different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act, and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the coming into force of that provision.

2. Definitions and interpretation.—

(1) In this Act , unless the context otherwise requires, –

(a) “Appellate Board” means the Appellate Board established under section 83:

(b) “assignment” means an assignment in writing by act of te parties concerned;

(c) “associated trade Marks” means trade marks deemed to be, or required to be, registered as associated trade marks under this Act;

(d) “Bench ” means a Bench of the Appellate Board;

(e) “certification trade mark” means a mark capable of distinguishing the goods or service in connection with which it is used in the course of trade which are certified by the proprietor of the mark in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture of goods or performance of service not so certified and registrable as such under Chapter IX in respect of those goods or service in the name, as proprietor of the certification trade mark , of that person;

(f) “Chairman” means the Chairman of the Appellate Board.

(g) “collective mark” means a trade mark distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons (not being a partnership within the meaning of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932) which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others.

(h) “deceptively similar”, – A mark shall be deemed to be deceptively similar to another mark if it so nearly resembles that other mark as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion.

(i) “false trade description” means-

(I) a trade description which is untrue or misleading in a material respect as regards the goods or services to which it is applied or

(II) any alteration of a trade description as regards the goods or services to which it is applied, whether by way of addition, effacement or otherwise, where that alteration makes the description untrue or misleading in a material respect, or

(III) any trade description which denotes or implies that there are contained, as regards the goods to which it is applied, more yards or meters than there are contained therein standard yards or standard meters, or

(IV) any marks or arrangement or combination thereof when applied-

(a) to goods in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the goods are the manufacture or merchandise of some person other than the person whose merchandise or manufacture they really are.

(b) in relation to services in such a manner as to be likely to lead persons to believe that the services are provided or rendered by some persons other than the person whose services they really are, or

(V) any false name or initials of a person applied to goods or service in such manner as if such name or initials were a trade description in any case where the name or initials-

(a) is or are not a trade mark or part of a trade mark, and

(b) is or are identical with or deceptively similar to the name or initials of a person carrying on business in connection with goods or services of the same description or both and who has not authorized the use of such name or initials, and

(c) is or are either the name or initials of a fictions person or some person not bona fide carrying on business in connection with such goods or services.

And the fact that a trade description is a trade mark or part of a trade mark shall not prevent such trade description being a false trade description within the meaning of this Act.

(j) “goods” means anything which is the subject of trade or manufacture.

(k) “Judicial Member” means a Member of the Appellate Board appointed as such under this Act, and includes the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman.

(l) “limitations” (with its grammatical variations) means any limitation of the exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given by the registration of a person as proprietor thereof, including limitations of that right a to mode or area of use within India or outside India.

(m) “mark” includes a device, brand, heading, lable, ticket, name, signature, word, letter, numeral, shape of goods, packaging or combination of colours or any combination thereof.

(n) “Member” means a Judicial Member or a Technical Member of the Appellate Board and includes the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman.

(o) “name” includes and abbreviation of a name.

(p) “notify” means to notify in the Trade Mark Journal published by the Registrar.

(q) “package” includes any case, box, container, covering, folder, recetacle, vessel, casket, bottle, wrapper, labler, band, ticket, reel, frame, capsule, cap, lid, stopper and cork.

(r) “permitted use: in relation to a registered trade mark, means the use of trade mark-

(i) by a registered user of the trade mark in relation to goods or service-

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade, and

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being, and

(c) for which he is registered as registered user, and

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which the registration of registered user is subject, or

(ii) by a person other than the registerd proprietor and registered user in relation to goods or services-

(a) with which he is connected in the course of trade, and

(b) in respect of which the trade mark remains registered for the time being, and

(c ) by consent of such registered proprietor in a written agreement, and

(d) which complies with any conditions or limitations to which such user is subject and to which the registration of the trade mark is subject.

(s) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act.

(t) “register” means the Register of Trade Mark referred to in sub-section (1) of section 6.

(u) “registered” (with its grammatical variations) means registered under this Act.

(v) “registered proprietor” in relation to a trade mark, means the person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of the trade mark.

(w) “registered trade mark” means a trade mark which is actually on the register and remaining in force.

(x) “registered user” means a person who is for the time being registered as such under section 49.

(y) “Registrar” means the Registrar of Trade Mark referred to in section 3.

(z) “service” means service of any description which is made available to potential users and includes the provisions of services in connection with business of any industrial or commercial matters such as banking, communication, education, financing, insurance, chit funds, real estate, transport, storage, material treatment, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding, lodging, entertainment, amusement, construction, repair, conveying of news or information and advertising.

(za) “trade description” means any description, statement or other indication, direct or indirect,-

(i) as to the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of any goods, or

(ii) as to the standard of quality of any goods or services according to a classification commonly used or recognized in the trade, or

(iii) as t fitness fr the purpose, strength, performance or behaviour of any goods, being “drug” as defined in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 (23 of 194)) or “food” as defined in the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 (37 of 1954), or

(iv) as to the place or country in which or the time at which any goods or services were made, produced or provided, as the case may be, or

(v) as to the name and address or other indication of the identity of the manufacturer or of the person providing the services of the person for whom the goods are manufactured or services are provided, or

(vi) as to the mode of manufacture or producing any goods or providing services, or

(vii) as to the material of which any goods are composed, or

(viii) as to any goods being the subject of an existing patent, privilege or copyright, and includes-

(a) any description as to the use of any mark which according to the custom of the trade is commonly taken to be an indication of any of the above matters.

(b) the description as to any imported goods contained in any bill of entry or shipping bill.

(c) any other description which is likely to be misunderstood or mistaken for all or any of the said matters.

(zb) “trade mark” means a mark capable of being represented graphically and which is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from choose of others and may include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colours , and

in relation to Chapter XII (other than section 107), a registered trade mark or mark used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so as to indicate a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right as proprietor to use the mark, and

in relation to other provisions of this Act, a mark used or proposed to be used in relation to goods or services for the purpose of indicating or so to indicate to a connection in the course of trade between the goods or services, as the case may be, and some person having the right, either as proprietor or by way of permitted user, to use the mark whether with or without any indication of the identity of that person, and includes a certification trade mark or collective mark.

(zc) “transmission” means transmission by operation of law, devolution on the personal representative of a deceased person and any other mode of transfer, not being assignment.

(zd) “Technical Member” means a Member who is not a Judicial Member.

(Ze) “tribunal” means the Registrar or, as the case may be, the Appellate Board, before which the proceeding concerned is pending.

(zf) “Vice-Chairman” means a Vice-Chairman of the Appellate Board.

(zg) “well-known trade mark” in relation to any goods or service, means a mark which has becomes so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services that the use of such mark in relation to other goods or services would be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in the course of trade or rendering of services between those goods or services and a person using the mark in relation to the first mentioned goods or services.

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, any reference – to “trade-mark” shall include reference to “collective mark” or “certification trade mark”.

To the use of a mark shall be construed as a reference to the use of printed or other visual representation of the mark.

To the use of a mark.- in relation to goods, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark upon, or n any physical or in any other relation whatsoever, to such goods.

In relation to goods, shall be construed as a reference to the use of the mark as or as part of any statement about the availability, provision or performance of such services.

To the Registrar shall be construed as including a reference to any officer when discharging the functions of the Registrar in pursuance of sub-section (2) of section 3.

To the Trade Marks Registry shall be construed as including a reference to any office of the Trade Marks Registry.

For the purposes of this Act, goods and services are associated with each other if it is likely that those goods might be sold or otherwise traded in and those services might be provided by the same business and so with description of goods and descriptions of services.

For the purposes of this Act, “existing registered trade mark” means a trade mark registered under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) immediately before the commencement of this Act.

Chapter 2 The Register and Conditions for Registration

3. Appointment of Registrar and other officers.-

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a person to be known as the Controller-General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, who shall be the Registrar of Trade Mark for the purposes of this Act.

The Central Government may appoint such other officers with such designations as it thinks fit for the purpose of discharging, under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar, such functions of the Registrar under this Act as he may from time to time authorise them to discharge.

4. Power of Registrar to withdraw or transfer cases, etc.-

Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of such-section (2) of section 3, the Registrar may, by order in writing and for reasons to be recorded therein, withdraw any matter pending before an officer appointed under the said sub-section (2) and deal with such matter himself either de novo or from the stage it was so withdrawn or transfer the same to another officer so appointed who may, subject to special directions in the order of transfer, proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

5. Trade Marks Registry and offices thereof.—

(1) For the purposes of this Act, there shall be a trade marks registry and the Trade Marks Registry established under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) shall be the Trade Marks Registry under this Act.

(2) The head office of the Trade Marks Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government may specify, and for the purpose of facilitating the registration of trade marks, there may be established at such places as the Central Government may think fit branch offices of the Trade Marks Registry.

(3) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, define the territorial limits within which an office of the Trade Marks Registry may exercise its functions.

(4) There shall be a seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

Comments

This section deals with the establishment of the Trade Marks Registry and branch offices. It provides that the Trade Marks Registry established under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 shall be the Trade Marks Registry for the purposes of this Act.

6. The Register of Trade Marks.—

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Register of Trade Marks shall be kept at the head office of the Trade Marks Registry, wherein shall be entered all registered trade marks with the names, addresses and description of the proprietors, notifications of assignment and transmissions, the names, addresses and descriptions of registered users, conditions, limitations and such other matter relating to registered trade marks as may be prescribed.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Registrar to keep the records wholly or partly in computer floppies, diskettes or in any other electronic form subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed.

(3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer under sub-section (2) any reference in this Act to entry in the register shall be construed as the reference to any entry as maintained on computer or in any other electronic form.

(4) No notice of any trust, express or implied or constructive, shall be entered in the register and no such notice shall be receivable by the Registrar.

(5) The register shall be kept under the control and management of the Registrar.

(6) There shall be kept at each branch office of the Trade Marks Registry a copy of the register and such of the other documents mentioned in section 148 as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct.

(7) The Register of Trade Marks, both Part A and Part B, existing at the commencement of this Act, shall be incorporated in and form part of the register under this Act.

Comments

This section contains provisions regarding maintenance of a Register of Trade Marks at head office wherein particulars of registered trade marks and other prescribed particulars, except notice of trust, shall be recorded. A copy of the Register is to be kept at each branch office. It provides for maintenance of records in computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form.

7. Classification of goods and services.—

(1) The Registrar shall classify goods and services, as far as may be, in accordance with the International classification of goods and services for the purposes of registration of trade marks.

(2) Any question arising as to the class within which any goods or services falls shall be determined by the Registrar whose decision shall be final.

Comments

Registrar is required to classify goods and services in accordance with the International classification for the purpose of registration of trade marks and his decision is final.

8. Publication of alphabetical index.—

(1) The Registrar may publish in the prescribed manner an alphabetical index of classification of goods and services referred to in section 7.

(2) Where any goods or services are not specified in the alphabetical index of goods and services published under sub-section (1), the classification of goods or services shall be determined by the Registrar in accordance with sub-section (2) of section 7.

9. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration.—

(1) The trade marks—

(a) which are devoid of any distinctive character, that is to say, not capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of another person;

(b) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of the goods or rendering of the service or other characteristics of the goods or service;

(c) which consist exclusively of marks or indications which have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practices of the trade,

shall not be registered :

Provided that a trade mark shall not be refused registration if before the date of application for registration it has acquired a distinctive character as a result of the use made of it or is a well-known trade mark.

(2) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if—

(a) it is of such nature as to deceive the public or cause confusion;

(b) it contains or comprises of any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India;

(c) it comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter;

(d) its use is prohibited under the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (12 of 1950).

(3) A mark shall not be registered as a trade mark if it consists exclusively of—

(a) the shape of goods which results from the nature of the goods themselves; or

(b) the shape of goods which is necessary to obtain a technical result; or

(c) the shape which gives substantial value to the goods.

Explanation.—

For the purposes of this section, the nature of goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is used or proposed to be used shall not be a ground for refusal of registration.

Comments

This section stipulates that the trade marks which are devoid of any distinctive character or which consist exclusively of marks or indications which may serve in trade to designate the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, values, geographical origin or the time of production of goods or rendering of the services or other characteristics of the goods or service or which consist exclusively of marks or indications which have become customary in the current language or in the bona fide and established practice of the trade shall not be registered, unless it is shown that the mark has in fact acquired a distinctive character as a result of use before the date of application. It also provides that a mark shall not be registered as trade marks if (i) it deceives the public or causes confusion, (ii) it contains or comprises of any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities, (iii) it contains scandalous or obscene matter, (iv) its use is prohibited. It further provides that if a mark consists exclusively of (a) the shape of goods which form the nature of goods themselves, or (b) the shape of goods which is necessary to obtain a technical result, or (c) the shape which gives substantial value of the goods then it shall not be registered as trade mark.

Test of similarity

In order to come to the conclusion whether one mark is deceptively similar to another the broad and essential features of the two are to be considered. They should not be placed side by side to find out if there are any differences in the design and if so whether they are of such a character as to prevent one design from being mistaken for the other. It would be enough if the impugned mark bears such an overall similarity to the registered mark as would be likely to misled a person usually dealing with one to accept the other if offered to him; Mumtaz Ahmed v. Pakeeza Chemicals; AIR 2003 All 114.

Apart from the structural, visual and phonetic similarity or dissimilarity, the question has to be considered from the point of view of man of average intelligence and imperfect collection. Secondly, it is to be considered as a whole and thirdly it is the question of his impression; BDH Industries Ltd. v. Croydon Chemical Works Pvt. Ltd., AIR 2002 Bom 361.

It is common knowledge that ’bidis’ are being used by persons belonging to poorer and illiterate or semi-literate class. Their level of awareness is not high. It cannot be expected of them that they would comprehend and understand the fine differences between the two labels, which may be detected on comparing the two labels when placed side by side. The essential features of the two labels are common. In view of above, there appears to be deceptive similarity between the two labels; Mohd. Iqbal v. Mohd. Wasim, AIR 2002 MP 162.

10. Limitation as to colour.—

(1) A trade mark may be limited wholly or in part to any combination of colours and any such limitation shall be taken into consideration by the tribunal having to decide on the distinctive character of the trade mark.

(2) So far as a trade mark is registered without limitation of colour, it shall be deemed to be registered for all colours.

11. Relative grounds for refusal of registration.—

(1) Save as provided in section 12, a trade mark shall not be registered if, because of—

(a) its identity with an earlier trade mark and similarity of goods or services covered by the trade mark; or

(b) its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by the trade mark,

there exists a likelihood of confusion on the part of the public, which includes the likelihood of association with the earlier trade mark.

(2) A trade mark which—

(a) is identical with or similar to an earlier trade mark; and

(b) is to be registered for goods or services which are not similar to those for which the earlier trade mark is registered in the name of a different proprietor,

shall not be registered, if or to the extent, the earlier trade mark is a well-known trade mark in India and the use of the later mark without due cause would take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the earlier trade mark.

(3) A trade mark shall not be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be prevented—

(a) by virtue of any law in particular the law of passing off protecting an unregistered trade mark used in the course of trade; or

(b) by virtue of law of copyright.

(4) Nothing in this section shall prevent the registration of a trade mark where the proprietor of the earlier trade mark or other earlier right consents to the registration, and in such case the Registrar may register the mark under special circumstances under section 12.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, earlier trade mark means—

(a) a registered trade mark or convention application referred to in section 154 which has a date of application earlier than that of the trade mark in question, taking account, where appropriate, of the priorities claimed in respect of the trade marks;

(b) a trade mark which, on the date of the application for registration of the trade mark in question, or where appropriate, of the priority claimed in respect of the application, was entitled to protection as a well-known trade mark.

(5) A trade mark shall not be refused registration on the grounds specified in sub-sections (2) and (3), unless objection on any one or more of those grounds is raised in opposition proceedings by the proprietor of the earlier trade mark.

(6) The Registrar shall, while determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, take into account any fact which he considers relevant for determining a trade mark as a well-known trade mark including—

(i) the knowledge or recognition of that trade mark in the relevant section of the public including knowledge in India obtained as a result of promotion of the trade mark;

(ii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any use of that trade mark;

(iii) the duration, extent and geographical area of any promotion of the trade mark, including advertising or publicity and presentation, at fairs or exhibition of the goods or services to which the trade mark applies;

(iv) the duration and geographical area of any registration of or any application for registration of that trade mark under this Act to the extent they reflect the use or recognition of the trade mark;

(v) the record of successful enforcement of the rights in that trade mark; in particular, the extent to which the trade mark has been recognised as a well-known trade mark by any court or Registrar under that record.

(7) The Registrar shall, while determining as to whether a trade mark is known or recognised in a relevant section of the public for the purposes of sub-section (6), take into account—

(i) the number of actual or potential consumers of the goods or services;

(ii) the number of persons involved in the channels of distribution of the goods or services;

(iii) the business circles dealing with the goods or services,

to which that trade mark applies.

(8) Where a trade mark has been determined to be well-known in at least one relevant section of the public in India by any court or Registrar, the Registrar shall consider that trade mark as a well-known trade mark for registration under this Act.

(9) The Registrar shall not require as a condition, for determining whether a trade mark is a well-known trade mark, any of the following, namely:—

(i) that the trade mark has been used in India;

(ii) that the trade mark has been registered;

(iii) that the application for registration of the trade mark has been filed in India;

(iv) that the trade mark—

(a) is well known in; or

(b) has been registered in; or

(c) in respect of which an application for registration has been filed in, any jurisdiction other than India; or

(v) that the trade mark is well-known to the public at large in India.

(10) While considering an application for registration of a trade mark and opposition filed in respect thereof, the Registrar shall—

(i) protect a well-known trade mark against the identical or similar trade marks;

(ii) take into consideration the bad faith involved either of the applicant or the opponent affecting the right relating to the trade mark.

(11) Where a trade mark has been registered in good faith disclosing the material informations to the Registrar or where right to a trade mark has been acquired through use in good faith before the commencement of this Act, then, nothing in this Act shall prejudice the validity of the registration of that trade mark or right to use that trade mark on the ground that such trade mark is identical with or similar to a well-known trade mark.

Comments

This section provides relative grounds for the refusal of registration of a trade mark. A trade mark cannot be registered if because of (i) its identity with an earlier trade mark and similarity of goods or services, (ii) its similarity to an earlier trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods and services, there is likelihood of confusion. It also provides that a trade mark cannot be registered which is identical with or similar to an earlier trade mark and which is to be registered for goods and services which are not similar to those for which earlier trade mark is registered in the name of a different proprietor if, or to the extent, the earlier trade mark is a well-known trade mark in India. It further provides that a trade mark cannot be registered if, or to the extent that, its use in India is liable to be prevented by virtue of any law.

Registration is not matter of right

Even if the appellant’s proposed trade mark satisfies the conditions under the Act, the appellant is not entitled as a matter of right to the registration of trade mark. It is open to the Registrar to decline to register the appellant’s trade mark; Geep Flashlight Industries Ltd. v. Registrar of Trade Mark, AIR 1972 Del 179.

12. Registration in the case of honest concurrent use, etc.—

In the case of honest concurrent use or of other special circumstances which in the opinion of the Registrar, make it proper so to do, he may permit the registration by more than one proprietor of the trade marks which are identical or similar (whether any such trade mark is already registered or not) in respect of the same or similar goods or services, subject to such conditions and limitations, if any, as the Registrar may think fit to impose.

Comments

This section provides for registration of same or similar trade mark by more than one proprietor in the case of honest concurrent use or other special circumstances.

13. Prohibition of registration of names of chemical elements or international non-proprietary names

No word—

(a) which is the commonly used and accepted name of any single chemical element or any single chemical compound (as distinguished from a mixture) in respect of a chemical substance or preparation, or

(b) which is declared by the World Health Organisation and notified in the prescribed manner by the Registrar from time to time, as an international non-proprietary name or which is deceptively similar to such name,

shall be registered as a trade mark and any such registration shall be deemed for the purpose of section 57 to be an entry made in the register without sufficient cause or an entry wrongly remaining on the register, as the circumstances may require.

Comments

This section provides that international non-proprietary names declared by World Health Organisation from time to time or deceptively similar names shall not be registered as trade marks.

14. Use of names and representations of living persons or persons recently dead.—

Where an application is made for the registration of a trade mark which falsely suggests a connection with any living person, or a person whose death took place within twenty years prior to the date of application for registration of the trade mark, the Registrar may, before he proceeds with the application, require the applicant to furnish him with the consent in writing of such living person or, as the case may be, of the legal representative of the deceased person to the connection appearing on the trade mark, and may refuse to proceed with the application unless the applicant furnishes the registrar with such consent.

Comments

If a trade mark falsely suggests a connection with any living person, or a person whose death took place within twenty years prior to the date of application for registration of the trade mark then written consent of the living person or the legal representative of the deceased person is required to be furnished.

15. Registration of parts of trade marks and of trade marks as a series.—

(1) Where the proprietor of a trade mark claims to be entitled to the exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he may apply to register the whole and the part as separate trade marks.

(2) Each such separate trade mark shall satisfy all the conditions applying to and have all the incidents of, an independent trade mark.

(3) Where a person claiming to be the proprietor of several trade marks in respect of the same or similar goods or services or description of goods or description of services, which, while resembling each other in the material particulars thereof, yet differ in respect of—

(a) statement of the goods or services in relation to which they are respectively used or proposed to be used; or

(b) statement of number, price, quality or names of places; or

(c) other matter of a non-distinctive character which does not substantially affect the identity of the trade mark; or

(d) colour,

seeks to register those trade marks, they may be registered as a series in one registration.

Comments

This section provides that if the proprietor of a trade mark claims to be entitled to the exclusive use of any part thereof separately, he can apply to register the whole and the part as separate trade marks.

16. Registration of trade marks as associated trade marks.—

(1) Where a trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in respect of any goods or services is identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services or so nearly resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may, at any time, require that the trade marks shall be entered on the register as associated trade marks.

(2) Where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration in the name of the same proprietor, in respect of goods and in respect of services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description and with those services or services of that description, sub-section (1) shall apply as it applies as where there is an identity or near resemblance of marks that are registered, or are the subject of applications for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or description of goods or same services or description of services.

(3) Where a trade mark and any part thereof are, in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 15, registered as separate trade marks in the name of the same proprietor, they shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

(4) All trade marks registered in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (3) of section 15 as a series in one registration shall be deemed to be, and shall be registered as, associated trade marks.

(5) On application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor of two or more trade marks registered as associated trade marks, the Registrar may dissolve the association as respects any of them if he is satisfied that there would be no likelihood of deception or confusion being caused if that trade mark were used by any other person in relation to any of the goods or services or both in respect of which it is registered, and may amend the register accordingly.

Comments

This section provides that where a trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration is identical with another trade mark which is registered, or is the subject of an application for registration, in the name of the same proprietor in respect of the same goods or nearly so resembles it as to be likely to deceive or cause confusion if used by a person other than the proprietor, the Registrar may require that the trade marks shall be entered in the register as associated trade marks.

17. Effect of registration of parts of a mark.—

(1) When a trade mark consists of several matters, its registration shall confer on the proprietor exclusive right to the use of the trade mark taken as a whole.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), when a trade mark—

(a) contains any part—

(i) which is not the subject of a separate application by the proprietor for registration as a trade mark; or

(ii) which is not separately registered by the proprietor as a trade mark; or

(b) contains any matter which is common to the trade or is otherwise of a non-distinctive character,

the registration thereof shall not confer any exclusive right in the matter forming only a part of the whole of the trade mark so registered.

Comments

If a trade mark consists of several matters, its registration shall confer exclusive right on the proprietor to use the trade mark as a whole. But when a trade mark contains any part which is not subject of a separate application or which is not separately registered by the proprietor, or contains any matter which is common to the trade mark or is otherwise of a non-distinctive character, the registration thereof shall not confer any exclusive right in the matter forming only a part of the whole of the trade mark so registered.

Chapter 3 Procedure for and Duration of Registration

18. Application for registration.—

(1) Any person claiming to be the proprietor of a trade mark used or proposed to be used by him, who is desirous of registering it, shall apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner for the registration of his trade mark.

(2) A single application may be made for registration of a trade mark for different classes of goods and services and fee payable therefor shall be in respect of each such class of goods or services.

(3) Every application under sub-section (1) shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the principal place of business in India of the applicant or in the case of joint applicants the principal place of business in India of the applicant whose name is first mentioned in the application as having a place of business in India, is situate:

Provided that where the applicant or any of the joint applicants does not carry on business in India, the application shall be filed in the office of the Trade Marks Registry within whose territorial limits the place mentioned in the address for service in India as disclosed in the application, is situate.

(4) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the Registrar may refuse the application or may accept it absolutely or subject to such amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, if any, as he may think fit.

(5) In the case of a refusal or conditional acceptance of an application, the Registrar shall record in writing the grounds for such refusal or conditional acceptance and the materials used by him in arriving at his decision.

Comments

For the registration of a trade mark an application is to be made to the Registrar. A single application can be made for registration of a trade mark for different classes of goods and services by paying prescribed fee for each such class of goods and services.

19. Withdrawal of acceptance.—

Where, after the acceptance of an application for registration of a trade mark but before its registration, the Registrar is satisfied—

(a) that the application has been accepted in error; or

(b) that in the circumstances of the case the trade mark should not be registered or should be registered subject to conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the application has been accepted,

the Registrar may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, withdraw the acceptance and proceed as if the application had not been accepted.

Comments

This section provides for withdrawal of acceptance of an application, before its registration, when the acceptance is in error, etc., after hearing the applicant.

20. Advertisement of application.—

(1) When an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted whether absolutely or subject to conditions or limitations, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be after acceptance, cause the application as accepted together with the conditions or limitations, if any, subject to which it has been accepted, to be advertised in the prescribed manner:

Provided that the Registrar may cause the application to be advertised before acceptance if it relates to a trade mark to which sub-section (1) of section 9 and sub-sections (1) and (2) of section 11 apply, or in any other case where it appears to him that it is expedient by reason of any exceptional circumstances so to do.

(2) Where—

(a) an application has been advertised before acceptance under sub-section (1); or

(b) after advertisement of an application,—

(i) an error in the application has been corrected; or

(ii) the application has been permitted to be amended under

section 22,

the Registrar may in his discretion cause the application to be advertised again or in any case falling under clause (b) may, instead of causing the application to be advertised again, notify in the prescribed manner the correction or amendment made in the application.

Comments

This section provides for advertisement of an application, either after acceptance or before acceptance, so as to afford the public an opportunity to oppose the registration of the mark.

21. Opposition to registration.—

(1) Any person may, within three months from the date of the advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration or within such further period, not exceeding one month in the aggregate, as the Registrar, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, allows, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner to the Registrar, of opposition to the registration.

(2) The Registrar shall serve a copy of the notice on the applicant for registration and, within two months from the receipt by the applicant of such copy of the notice of opposition, the applicant shall send to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a counter-statement of the grounds on which he relies for his application, and if he does not do so he shall be deemed to have abandoned his application.

(3) If the applicant sends such counter-statement, the Registrar shall serve a copy thereof on the person giving notice of opposition.

(4) Any evidence upon which the opponent and the applicant may rely shall be submitted in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed time to the Registrar, and the Registrar shall give an opportunity to them to be heard, if they so desire.

(5) The Registrar shall, after hearing the parties, if so required, and considering the evidence, decide whether and subject to what conditions or limitations, if any, the registration is to be permitted, and may take into account a ground of objection whether relied upon by the opponent or not.

(6) Where a person giving notice of opposition or an applicant sending a counter-statement after receipt of a copy of such notice neither resides nor carries on business in India, the Registrar may require him to give security for the costs of proceedings before him, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the opposition or application, as the case may be, as abandoned.

(7) The Registrar may, on request, permit correction of any error in, or any amendment of, a notice of opposition or a counter-statement on such terms as he thinks just.

Comments

Any person can give notice in writing of opposition to the registration within three months from the date of advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration.

22. Correction and amendment.—

The Registrar may, on such terms as he thinks just, at any time, whether before or after acceptance of an application for registration under section 18, permit the correction of any error in or in connection with the application or permit an amendment of the application:

Provided that if an amendment is made to a single application referred to in sub-section (2) of section 18 involving division of such application into two or more applications, the date of making of the initial application shall be deemed to be the date of making of the divided applications so divided.

Comments

This section provides for correction of any error in or in connection with the application or amendment of the application either before or after acceptance of the application.

23. Registration.—

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 19, when an application for registration of a trade mark has been accepted and either—

(a) the application has not been opposed and the time for notice of opposition has expired; or

(b) the application has been opposed and the opposition has been decided in favour of the applicant,

the Registrar shall, unless the Central Government otherwise directs, register the said trade mark and the trade mark when registered shall be registered as of the date of the making of the said application and that date shall, subject to the provisions of section 154, be deemed to be the date of registration.

(2) On the registration of a trade mark, the Registrar shall issue to the applicant a certificate in the prescribed form of the registration thereof, sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry.

(3) Where registration of a trade mark is not completed within twelve months from the date of the application by reason of default on the part of the applicant, the Registrar may, after giving notice to the applicant in the prescribed manner, treat the application as abandoned unless it is completed within the time specified in that behalf in the notice.

(4) The Registrar may amend the register or a certificate of registration for the purpose of correcting a clerical error or an obvious mistake.

Comments

This section makes it mandatory on the Registrar to register the trade mark where the procedure for registration of a trade mark has been completed viz., the application has been accepted and either the application has not been opposed or the opposition has been dismissed.

24. Jointly owned trade marks.—

(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), nothing in this Act shall authorise the registration of two or more persons who use a trade mark independently, or propose so to use it, as joint proprietors thereof.

(2) Where the relations between two or more persons interested in a trade mark are such that no one of them is entitled as between himself and the other or others of them to use it except—

(a) on behalf of both or all of them; or

(b) in relation to an article or service with which both or all of them are connected in the course of trade,

those persons may be registered as joint proprietors of the trade mark, and this Act shall have effect in relation to any rights to the use of the trade mark vested in those persons as if those rights had been vested in a single person.

Comments

This section provides for registration of jointly owned trade marks where the mark is used or proposed to be used in relation to goods or services connected with all the joint applicants.

25. Duration, renewal, removal and restoration of registration.—

(1) The registration of a trade mark, after the commencement of this Act, shall be for a period of ten years, but may be renewed from time to time in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) The Registrar shall, on application made by the registered proprietor of a trade mark in the prescribed manner and within the prescribed period and subject to payment of the prescribed fee, renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years from the date of expiration of the original registration or of the last renewal of registration, as the case may be (which date is in this section referred to as the expiration of the last registration).

(3) At the prescribed time before the expiration of the last registration of a trade mark the Registrar shall send notice in the prescribed manner to the registered proprietor of the date of expiration and the conditions as to payment of fees and otherwise upon which a renewal of registration may be obtained, and, if at the expiration of the time prescribed in that behalf those conditions have not been duly complied with the Registrar may remove the trade mark from the register:

Provided that the Registrar shall not remove the trade mark from the register if an application is made in the prescribed form and the prescribed fee and surcharge is paid within six months from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark and shall renew the registration of the trade mark for a period of ten years under sub-section (2).

(4) Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for non-payment of the prescribed fee, the Registrar shall, after six months and within one year from the expiration of the last registration of the trade mark, on receipt of an application in the prescribed form and on payment of the prescribed fee, if satisfied that it is just so to do, restore the trade mark to the register and renew the registration of the trade mark either generally or subject to such conditions or limitations as he thinks fit to impose, for a period of ten years from the expiration of the last registration.

26. Effect of removal from register for failure to pay fee for renewal.—

Where a trade mark has been removed from the register for failure to pay the fee for renewal, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose of any application for the registration of another trade mark during one year, next after the date of the removal, be deemed to be a trade mark already on the register, unless the tribunal is satisfied either—

(a) that there has been no bona fide trade use of the trade mark which

has been removed during the two years immediately preceding its removal; or

(b) that no deception or confusion would be likely to arise from the use of the trade mark which is the subject of the application for registration by reason of any previous use of the trade mark which has been removed.

Comments

This section provides that where a trade mark has been removed from the register for failure to pay the renewal fee, it shall nevertheless, for the purpose of any application for the registration of another trade mark during one year next after the date of the removal, be deemed to be a trade mark already on the register.

Chapter 4 Effect of Registration

27. No action for infringement of unregistered trade mark.—

(1) No person shall be entitled to institute any proceeding to prevent, or to recover damages for, the infringement of an unregistered trade mark.

(2) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to affect rights of action against any person for passing off goods or services as the goods of another person or as services provided by another person, or the remedies in respect thereof.

Comments

This section provides that no infringement action will lie in respect of an unregistered trade mark, but recognises the common law rights of the trade mark owner to take action against any person for passing off goods as the goods of another person or as services provided by another person or the remedies thereof.

28. Rights conferred by registration.—

(1) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the registration of a trade mark shall, if valid, give to the registered proprietor of the trade mark the exclusive right to the use of the trade mark in relation to the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and to obtain relief in respect of infringement of the trade mark in the manner provided by this Act.

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

(3) Where two or more persons are registered proprietors of trade marks, which are identical with or nearly resemble each other, the exclusive right to the use of any of those trade marks shall not (except so far as their respective rights are subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register) be deemed to have been acquired by any one of those persons as against any other of those persons merely by registration of the trade marks but each of those persons has otherwise the same rights as against other persons (not being registered users using by way of permitted use) as he would have if he were the sole registered proprietor.

29. Infringement of registered trade marks.—

(1) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which is identical with, or deceptively similar to, the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being used as a trade mark.

(2) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which because of—

(a) its identity with the registered trade mark and the similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

(b) its similarity to the registered trade mark and the identity or similarity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark; or

(c) its identity with the registered trade mark and the identity of the goods or services covered by such registered trade mark,

is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public, or which is likely to have an association with the registered trade mark.

(3) In any case falling under clause (c) of sub-section (2), the court shall presume that it is likely to cause confusion on the part of the public.

(4) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who, not being a registered proprietor or a person using by way of permitted use, uses in the course of trade, a mark which—

(a) is identical with or similar to the registered trade mark; and

(b) is used in relation to goods or services which are not similar to those for which the trade mark is registered; and

(c) the registered trade mark has a reputation in India and the use of the mark without due cause takes unfair advantage of or is detrimental to, the distinctive character or repute of the registered trade mark.

(5) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person if he uses such registered trade mark, as his trade name or part of his trade name, or name of his business concern or part of the name, of his business concern dealing in goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

(6) For the purposes of this section, a person uses a registered mark, if, in particular, he—

(a) affixes it to goods or the packaging thereof;

(b) offers or exposes goods for sale, puts them on the market, or stocks them for those purposes under the registered trade mark, or offers or supplies services under the registered trade mark;

(c) imports or exports goods under the mark; or

(d) uses the registered trade mark on business papers or in advertising.

(7) A registered trade mark is infringed by a person who applies such registered trade mark to a material intended to be used for labelling or packaging goods, as a business paper, or for advertising goods or services, provided such person, when he applied the mark, knew or had reason to believe that the application of the mark was not duly authorised by the proprietor or a licensee.

(8) A registered trade mark is infringed by any advertising of that trade mark if such advertising—

(a) takes unfair advantage of and is contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters; or

(b) is detrimental to its distinctive character; or

(c) is against the reputation of the trade mark.

(9) Where the distinctive elements of a registered trade mark consist of or include words, the trade mark may be infringed by the spoken use of those words as well as by their visual representation and reference in this section to the use of a mark shall be construed accordingly.

Comments

Infringement: Onus to prove

It is well settled that the plaintiff must prove the essential features of his registered mark have been copied. The onus to prove ’deception’ is on the part of the plaintiff who alleges infringement. A mark is said to be infringed by another trader if, even without using the whole of it, the latter uses one or more of its “essential features”. The identification of an essential feature depends partly on the Courts own judgement and partly on the burden of the evidence that is placed before it. Ascertainment of an essential feature is not to be ocular test alone; it is impossible to exclude consideration of the sound of words forming part or the whole of the mark; S.M. Dyechem Ltd. v. Cadbury (India) Ltd., AIR 2000 SC 2114.

30. Limits on effect of registered trade mark.—

(1) Nothing in section 29 shall be construed as preventing the use of a registered trade mark by any person for the purposes of identifying goods or services as those of the proprietor provided the use—

(a) is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters, and

(b) is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of the trade mark.

(2) A registered trade mark is not infringed where—

(a) the use in relation to goods or services indicates the kind, quality, quantity, intended purpose, value, geographical origin, the time of production of goods or of rendering of services or other characteristics of goods or services;

(b) a trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations, the use of the trade mark in any manner in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available or acceptance in any place or country outside India or in any other circumstances, to which, having regard to those conditions or limitations, the registration does not extend;

(c) the use by a person of a trade mark—

(i) in relation to goods connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark if, as to those goods or a bulk or which they form part, the registered proprietor or the registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the trade mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) in relation to services to which the proprietor of such mark or of a registered user conforming to the permitted use has applied the mark, where the purpose and effect of the use of the mark is to indicate, in accordance with the fact, that those services have been performed by the proprietor or a registered user of the mark;

(d) the use of a trade mark by a person in relation to goods adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods or services in relation to which the trade mark has been used without infringement of the right given by registration under this Act or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the trade mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services are so adapted, and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the trade mark is to indicate, otherwise than in accordance with the fact, a connection in the course of trade between any person and the goods or services, as the case may be;

(e) the use of a registered trade mark, being one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act which are identical or nearly resemble each other, in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration under this Act.

(3) Where the goods bearing a registered trade mark are lawfully acquired by a person, the sale of the goods in the market or otherwise dealing in those goods by that person or by a person claiming under or through him is not infringement of a trade by reason only of—

(a) the registered trade mark having been assigned by the registered proprietor to some other person, after the acquisition of those goods; or

(b) the goods having been put on the market under the registered trade mark by the proprietor or with his consent.

(4) Sub-section (3) shall not apply where there exists legitimate reasons for the proprietor to oppose further dealings in the goods in particular, where the condition of the goods, has been changed or impaired after they have been put on the market.

Comments

If the use of mark is in accordance with honest practices in industrial or commercial matters and is not such as to take unfair advantage of or be detrimental to the distinctive character or repute of a trade mark. There is no infringement in (1) Where the use is in relation to goods or services to indicate the kind, quality, quantity, etc., of the goods or of rendering of services. (2) Use of the trade mark in a manner outside the scope of registration where a trade mark is registered subject to conditions or limitations. (3) Where a person uses the mark in relation to goods or services for which the registered owner had once applied the mark, and had not subsequently removed it or impliedly consented to its use. (4) A trade mark registered for any goods may be used in relation to parts and accessories to other goods, or services and such use is reasonably necessary and its effect is not likely to deceive as to the origin. (5) The use of registered trade mark being one of two or more registered trade marks which are identical or similar, in exercise of the right to the use of that registered trade mark.

31. Registration to be prima facie evidence of validity.—

(1) In all legal proceedings relating to a trade mark registered under this Act (including applications under section 57), the original registration of the trade mark and of all subsequent assignments and transmissions of the trade mark shall be prima facie evidence of the validity thereof.

(2) In all legal proceedings as aforesaid a registered trade mark shall not be held to be invalid on the ground that it was not a registrable trade mark under section 9 except upon evidence of distinctiveness and that such evidence was not submitted to the Registrar before registration, if it is proved that the trade mark had been so used by the registered proprietor or his predecessor in title as to have become distinctive at the date of registration.

32. Protection of registration on ground of distinctiveness in certain cases.—

Where a trade mark is registered in breach of sub-section (1) of section 9, it shall not be declared invalid if, in consequence of the use which has been made of it, it has after registration and before commencement of any legal proceedings challenging the validity of such registration, acquired a distinctive character in relation to the goods or services for which it is registered.

Comments

Meaning of the expression ’distinctive in relation to the goods’

The expression ’distinctive in relation to the goods’ in respect of which a trade mark is proposed to be registered, means adapted to distinguish goods with which the proprietor of the trade mark is or may be connected in course of trade from goods in the case of which no such connection subsists either generally or, where the trade mark is proposed to be registered subject to limitations in relation to use within the extent of registration; Imperial Tobacco Co. of India Ltd. v. Registrar of Trade Mark, AIR 1977 Cal 413. See also Consolidated Food Corp. v. Brandon & Co., AIR 1965 Bom 35.

33. Effect of acquiescence.—

(1) Where the proprietor of an earlier trade mark has acquiesced for a continuous period of five years in the use of a registered trade mark, being aware of that use, he shall no longer be entitled on the basis of that earlier trade mark—

(a) to apply for a declaration that the registration of the later trade mark is invalid, or

(b) to oppose the use of the later trade mark in relation to the goods or services in relation to which it has been so used,unless the registration of the later trade mark was not applied in good faith.

(2) Where sub-section (1) applies, the proprietor of the later trade mark is not entitled to oppose the use of the earlier trade mark, or as the case may be, the exploitation of the earlier right, notwithstanding that the earlier trade mark may no longer be invoked against his later trade mark.

Comments

The proprietor of the earlier trade mark or other earlier right cannot contest the validity of registration of a subsequent trade mark, if he has acquiesced in the use of the subsequent trade mark for a continuous period of five years, unless he can prove that the registration of the subsequent trade mark was not obtained in good faith. The proprietor of the later mark also is not entitled to oppose the use of the earlier trade mark.

34. Saving for vested rights.—

Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of registered trade mark to interfere with or restrain the use by any person of a trade mark identical with or nearly resembling it in relation to goods or services in relation to which that person or a predecessor in title of his has continuously used that trade mark from a date prior—

(a) to the use of the first-mentioned trade mark in relation to those goods or services be the proprietor or a predecessor in title of his; or

(b) to the date of registration of the first-mentioned trade mark in respect of those goods or services in the name of the proprietor of a predecessor in title of his;

whichever is the earlier, and the Registrar shall not refuse (on such use being proved), to register the second mentioned trade mark by reason only of the registration of the first mentioned trade mark.

Comments

This section provides for protecting the vested rights, so that the proprietor of registered trade mark or a registered user cannot interfere with the use of any identical or similar mark if the person has been using the mark from an earlier date.

35. Saving for use of name, address or description of goods or services.—

Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor or a registered user of a registered trade mark to interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his own name or that of his place of business, or of the name, or of the name of the place of business, of any of his predecessors in business, or the use by any person of any bona fide description of the character or quality of his goods or services.

Comments

This section provides that the registered proprietor or the registered user cannot interfere with any bona fide use by a person of his one name, or his predecessor in business, his place of business or bona fide description of the character or quality of the goods or services.

36. Saving for words used as name or description of an article or substance or service.—

(1) The registration of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of any use after the date of the registration of any word or words which the trade mark contains or of which it consists as the name or description of an article or substance or service:

Provided that, if it is proved either—

(a) that there is a well known and established use of the said word as the name or description of the article or substance or service by a person or persons carrying on trade therein, not being used in relation to goods or services connected in the course of trade with the proprietor or a registered user of the trade mark or (in the case of a certification trade mark) in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor; or

(b) that the article or substance was formerly manufactured under a patent that a period of two years or more after the cesser of the patent has elapsed and that the said word is the only practicable name or description of the article or substance,

the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply.

(2) Where the facts mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b) of the proviso to sub-section (1) are proved with respect to any words, then,—

(a) for the purpose of any proceedings under section 57 if the trade mark consists solely of such words, the registration of the trade mark, so far as regards registration in respect of the article or substance in question or of any goods of the same description, or of the services or of any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to be an entry wrongly remaining on the register;

(b) for the purposes of any other legal proceedings relating to the trade mark,—

(i) if the trade mark consists solely of such words, all rights of the proprietor under this Act or any other law to the use of the trade mark; or

(ii) if the trade mark contains such words and other matter, all such right of the proprietor to the use of such words,

in relation to the article or substance or to any goods of the same description, or to the service or to any services of the same description, as the case requires, shall be deemed to have ceased on the date on which the use mentioned in clause (a) of the proviso to sub-section (1) first became well known and established or at the expiration of the period of two years mentioned in clause (b) of the said proviso.

Comments

This section prevents a person from asserting any exclusive right, by virtue of trade mark or patent, over a word which has come to be associated as the name or description of an article. If there is a well known and established use of the word in a descriptive sense, and that is the only practicable name of description of an article, the validity of registration of such word as trade mark can be challenged. The provisions of this clause extend to services.

Chapter 5 Assignment and Transmission

37. Power of registered proprietor to assign and give receipts.—

The person for the time being entered in the register as proprietor of a trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Act and to any rights appearing from the register to be vested in any other person, have power to assign the trade mark, and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment.

Comments

This section provides that a registered proprietor has the power to assign the trade mark for any consideration and to give effectual receipts for any consideration for such assignment.

38. Assignability and transmissibility of registered trade marks.—

Notwithstanding anything in any other law to the contrary, a registered trade mark shall, subject to the provisions of this Chapter, be assignable and transmissible, whether with or without the goodwill of the business concerned and in respect either of all the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered or of some only of those goods or services.

Comments

This section provides that a registered trade mark is assignable and transmissible with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.

39. Assignability and transmissibility of unregistered trade marks.—

An unregistered trade mark may be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.

Comments

This section provides that unregistered trade mark can be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned.

40. Restriction on assignment or transmission where multiple exclusive rights would be created.—

(1) Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law, exclusive rights in more than one of the persons concerned to the use, in relation to—

(a) same goods or services;

(b) same description of goods or services;

(c) goods or services or description of goods or services which are associated with each other,

of trade marks nearly resembling each other or of identical trade mark, if having regard to the similarity of the goods and services and to the similarity of the trade marks, the use of the trade marks in exercise of those rights would be likely to deceive or cause confusion:

Provided that an assignment or transmission shall not be deemed to be invalid under this sub-section if the exclusive rights subsisting as a result thereof in the persons concerned respectively are, having regard to limitations imposed thereon, such as not to be exercisable by two or more of those persons in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in, within India otherwise than for export therefrom, or in relation to goods to be exported to the same market outside India or in relation to services for use at any place in India or any place outside India in relation to services available for acceptance in India.

(2) The proprietor of a registered trade mark who proposes to assign it may submit to the Registrar in the prescribed manner a statement of case setting out the circumstances and the Registrar may issue to him a certificate stating whether, having regard to the similarity of the goods or services and of the trade marks referred to in the case, the proposed assignment would or would not be invalid under sub-section (1), and a certificate so issued shall, subject to appeal and unless it is shown that the certificate was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be conclusive as to the validity or invalidity under sub-section (1) of the assignment insofar as such validity or invalidity depends upon the facts set out in the case, but, as regards a certificate in favour of validity, only if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the certificate is issued.

Comments

This section contains restriction on assignments or transmissions of trade mark where multiple exclusive rights would be created in more than one person, which would be likely to deceive or cause confusion. Nevertheless, such assignment is not deemed to be invalid, if having regard to the limitations imposed, the goods are to be sold in different markets—either within India or for exports. The provisions also apply to services.

1. Restriction on assignment or transmission when exclusive rights would be created in different parts of India

Notwithstanding anything in sections 38 and 39, a trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible in a case in which as a result of the assignment or transmission there would in the circumstances subsist, whether under this Act or any other law—

(a) an exclusive right in one of the persons concerned, to the use of the trade mark limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, in any place in India, or in relation to services for use, or services available for acceptance in any place in India; and

(b) an exclusive right in another of these persons concerned, to the use of a trade mark nearly resembling the first-mentioned trade mark or of an identical trade mark in relation to—

(i) the same goods or services; or

(ii) the same description of goods or services; or

(iii) services which are associated with those goods or goods of that description or goods which are associated with those services or services of that description,

limited to use in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in, or services for use, or available for acceptance, in any other place in India:

Provided that in any such case, on application in the prescribed manner by the proprietor of a trade mark who proposes to assign it, or by a person who claims that a registered trade mark has been transmitted to him or to a predecessor in title of his since the commencement of this Act, the Registrar, if he is satisfied that in all the circumstances the use of the trade mark in exercise of the said rights would not be contrary to the public interest may approve the assignment or transmission, and an assignment or transmission so approved shall not, unless it is shown that the approval was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, be deemed to be invalid under this section or section 40 if application for the registration under section 45 of the title of the person becoming entitled is made within six months from the date on which the approval is given or, in the case of a transmission, was made before that date.

42. Assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks.—

A certification trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Registrar, for which application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner.

Comments

This clause deals with the assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks. Assignment of certification trade marks can only be done with the consent of the Registrar. Consequent to the proposal to vest the final authority for disposal of application for certification trade marks on the Registrar, this clause seeks to make necessary change in the law by the substitution of the word “Registrar” for the words “Central Government”.

43. Assignability and transmissibility of certification trade marks.-—

A certification trade mark shall not be assignable or transmissible otherwise than with the consent of the Registrar, for which application shall be made in writing in the prescribed manner.

44. Assignability and transmissibility of associated trade marks.—

Associated trade marks shall be assignable and transmissible only as a whole and not separately, but, subject to the provisions of this Act, they shall, for all other purposes, be deemed to have been registered as separate trade marks.

Comments

This clause requires that associated trade marks shall be assignable and transmissible only as a whole but they will be treated as separate trade marks for all other purposes. It corresponds to the provision contained in section 43 of the existing Act.

45. Registration of assignments and transmissions.—

(1) Where a person becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trade mark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall, on receipt of the application and on proof of title to his satisfaction, register him as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of the goods or services in respect of which the assignment or transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of the assignment or transmission to be entered on the register:

Provided that where the validity of an assignment or transmission is in dispute between the parties, the Registrar may refuse to register the assignment or transmission until the rights of the parties have been determined by a competent court.

(2) Except for the purpose of an application before the Registrar under sub-section (1) or an appeal from an order thereon, or an application under section 57 or an appeal from an order thereon, a document or instrument in respect of which no entry has been made in the register in accordance with sub-section (1), shall not be admitted in evidence by the Registrar or the Appellate Board or any court in proof of title to the trade mark by assignment or transmission unless the Registrar or the Appellate Board or the court, as the case may be, otherwise directs.

Comments

This section provides that where the validity of an assignment is in dispute between the parties, the Registrar can refuse to register such transaction unless the rights of parties are determined by the competent court.

It further lays down that any instrument or document on the basis of which no entry has been made is not admissible in evidence before the Registrar or any court.

Chapter 6 Use of Trade Marks and Registered Users

46. Proposed use of trade mark by company to be formed, etc.—

(1) No application for the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall be refused nor shall permission for such registration be withheld, on the ground only that it appears that the applicant does not use or propose to use the trade mark if the Registrar is satisfied that—

(a) a company is about to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) and that the applicant intends to assign the trade mark to that company with a view to the use thereof in relation to those goods or services by the company, or

(b) the proprietor intends it to be used by a person, as a registered user after the registration of the trade mark.

(2) The provisions of section 47 shall have effect, in relation to a trade mark registered under the powers conferred by this sub-section, as if for the reference, in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of that section, to the intention on the part of an applicant for registration that a trade mark should be used by him there were substituted a reference to the intention on his part that it should be used by the company or registered user concerned.

(3) The tribunal may, in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, require the applicant to give security for the costs of any proceedings relating to any opposition or appeal, and in default of such security being duly given, may treat the application as abandoned.

(4) Where in a case to which sub-section (1) applies, a trade mark in respect of any goods or services is registered in the name of an applicant who, relies on intention to assign the trade mark to a company, then, unless within such period as may be prescribed or within such further period not exceeding six months as the Registrar may, on application being made to him in the prescribed manner, allow, the company has been registered as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of those goods or services, the registration shall cease to have effect in respect thereof at the expiration of that period and the Registrar shall amend the register accordingly.

Comments

This section contains two exceptions providing for registration of a trade mark—(1) by a person who proposes to assign the trade mark to a company to be formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 and (2) by a person who proposes to use the trade mark by a registered user as and when the mark is registered.

47. Removal from register and imposition of limitations on ground of non-use.—

(1) A registered trade mark may be taken off the register in respect of the goods or services in respect of which it is registered on application made in the prescribed manner to the Registrar or the Appellate Board by any person aggrieved on the ground either—

(a) that the trade mark was registered without any bona fide intention on

the part of the applicant for registration that it should be used in relation to those goods or services by him or, in a case to which the provisions of section 46 apply, by the company concerned or the registered user, as the case may be, and that there has, in fact, been no bona fide use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being up to a date three months before the date of the application; or

(b) that up to a date three months before the date of the application, a continuous period of five years from the date on which the trade mark is actually entered in the register or longer had elapsed during which the trade mark was registered and during which there was no bona fide use thereof in relation to those goods or services by any proprietor thereof for the time being:

Provided that except where the applicant has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of the goods or services in question, or where the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark, the tribunal may refuse an application under clause (a) or clause (b) in relation to any goods or services, if it is shown that there has been, before the relevant date or during the relevant period, as the case may be, bona fide use of the trade mark by any proprietor thereof for the time being in relation to—

(i) goods or services of the same description; or

(ii) goods or services associated with those goods or services of that description being goods or services, as the case may be, in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

(2) Where in relation to any goods or services in respect of which a trade mark is registered—

(a) the circumstances referred to in clause (b) of sub-section (1) are shown to exist so far as regards non-use of the trade mark in relation to goods to be sold, or otherwise traded in a particular place in India (otherwise than for export from India), or in relation to goods to be exported to a particular market outside India; or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in a particular place in India or for use in a particular market outside India; and

(b) a person has been permitted under section 12 to register an identical or nearly resembling trade mark in respect of those goods, under a registration extending to use in relation to goods to be so sold, or otherwise traded in, or in relation to goods to be so exported, or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in that place or for use in that country, or the tribunal is of opinion that he might properly be permitted so to register such a trade mark,

on application by that person in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, the tribunal may impose on the registration of the first-mentioned trade mark such limitations as it thinks proper for securing that registration shall cease to extend to such use.

(3) An applicant shall not be entitled to rely for the purpose of clause (b) of sub-section (1) or for the purposes of sub-section (2) on any non-use of a trade mark which is shown to have been due to special circumstances in the trade, which includes restrictions on the use of the trade mark in India imposed by any law or regulation and not to any intention to abandon or not to use the trade mark in relation to the goods or services to which the application relates.

48. Registered users.—

(1) Subject to the provisions of section 49, a person other than the registered proprietor of a trade mark may be registered as a registered user thereof in respect of any or all of the goods or services in respect of which the trade mark is registered.

(2) The permitted use of a trade mark shall be deemed to be used by the proprietor thereof, and shall be deemed not to be used by a person other than the proprietor, for the purposes of section 47 or for any other purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

49. Registration as registered user.—

(1) Where it is proposed that a person should be registered as a registered user of a trade mark, the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user shall jointly apply in writing to the Registrar in the prescribed manner, and every such application shall be accompanied by—

(a) the agreement in writing or a duly authenticated copy thereof, entered into between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user with respect to the permitted use of the trade mark; and

(b) an affidavit made by the registered proprietor or by some person authorised to the satisfaction of the Registrar to act on his behalf,—

(i) giving particulars of the relationship, existing or proposed, between the registered proprietor and the proposed registered user, including particulars showing the degree of control by the proprietor over the permitted use which their relationship will confer and whether it is a term of their relationship that the proposed registered user shall be the sole registered user or that there shall be any other restriction as to persons for whose registration as registered users application may be made;

(ii) stating the goods or services in respect of which registration is

proposed;

(iii) stating the conditions or restrictions, if any, proposed with respect to the characteristics of the goods or services, to the mode or place of permitted use, or to any other matter;

(iv) stating whether the permitted use is to be for a period or without limit of period, and, if for a period, the duration thereof; and

(c) such further documents or other evidence as may be required by the Registrar or as may be prescribed.

(2) When the requirements of sub-section (1) have been complied with, the Registrar shall register the proposed registered user in respect of the goods or services as to which he is so satisfied.

(3) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner of the registration of a person as a registered user, to other registered users of the trade mark, if any.

(4) The Registrar shall, if so requested by the applicant, take steps for securing that information given for the purposes of an application under this section (other than matters entered in the register) is not disclosed to rivals in trade.

50. Power of Registrar for variation or cancellation of registration as registered user.—

(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 57, the registration of a person as registered user—

(a) may be varied by the Registrar as regards the goods or services in respect of which it has effect on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor of the trade mark;

(b) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of the registered proprietor or of the registered user or of any other registered user of the trade mark;

(c) may be cancelled by the Registrar on the application in writing in the prescribed manner of any person on any of the following grounds,

namely:—

(i) that the registered user has used the trade mark otherwise than in accordance with the agreement under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 or in such way as to cause or to be likely to cause, deception or confusion;

(ii) that the proprietor or the registered user misrepresented, or failed to disclose, some fact material to the application for registration which if accurately represented or disclosed would not have justified the registration of the registered user;

(iii) that the circumstances have changed since the date of registration in such a way that at the date of such application for cancellation they would not have justified registration of the registered user;

(iv) that the registration ought not to have been effected having regard to rights vested in the applicant by virtue of a contract in the performance of which he is interested;

(d) may be cancelled by the Registrar on his own motion or on the application in writing in the prescribed manner by any person, on the ground that any stipulation in the agreement between the registered proprietor and the registered user regarding the quality of the goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is to be used is either not being enforced or is not being complied with;

(e) may be cancelled by the Registrar in respect of any goods or services in relation to which the trade mark is no longer registered.

(2) The Registrar shall issue notice in the prescribed manner in respect of every application under this section to the registered proprietor and each registered user (not being the applicant) of the trade mark.

(3) The procedure for cancelling a registration shall be such as may be prescribed:

Provided that before cancelling of registration, the registered proprietor shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

Comments

Registration of registered user may be varied or cancelled, inter alia, on the ground that the registered user has used the trade mark not in accordance with the agreement or the proprietor/user has failed to disclose any material facts for such registration or that the stipulation in the agreement regarding the quality of goods is not enforced or that the circumstances have changed since the date of registration, etc. Notice and opportunity of hearing is provided before cancellation of registration.

51. Power of Registrar to call for information relating to agreement in respect of registered users.—

(1) The Registrar may, at any time during the continuance of the registration of the registered user, by notice in writing, require the registered proprietor to confirm to him within one month that the agreement filed under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 49 continues to be in force.

(2) If the registered proprietor fails to furnish the confirmation within one month as required under sub-section (1), the registered user shall cease to be the registered user on the day immediately after the expiry of the said period and the Registrar shall notify the same.

52. Right of registered user to take proceedings against infringement.—

(1) Subject to any agreement subsisting between the parties, a registered user may institute proceedings for infringement in his own name as if he were the registered proprietor, making the registered proprietor a defendant and the rights and obligations of such registered user in such case being concurrent with those of the registered proprietor.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered proprietor so added as defendant shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceedings.

53. No right of permitted user to take proceeding against infringement.—

A person referred to in sub-clause (ii) of clause (r) of sub-section (1) of section 2 shall have no right to institute any proceeding for any infringement.

54. Registered user not to have right of assignment or transmission.—

Nothing in this Act shall confer on a registered user of a trade mark any assignable or transmissible right to the use thereof.

Explanation I.—The right of a registered user of a trade mark shall not be deemed to have been assigned or transmitted within the meaning of this section in the following cases, namely:—

(a) where the registered user being an individual enters into a partnership with any other person for carrying on the business concerned; but in any such case the firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as the registered user is a member of the firm;

(b) where the registered user being a firm subsequently undergoes a change in its constitution; but in any such case the reconstituted firm may use the trade mark, if otherwise in force, only for so long as any partner of the original firm at the time of its registration as registered user, continues to be a partner of the reconstituted firm.

Explanation II.—For the purposes of Explanation 1, “firm” has the same meaning as in the Indian Partnership Act, 1932 (9 of 1932).

55. Use of one of associated or substantially identical trade marks equivalent to use of another.—

(1) Where under the provisions of this Act, use of a registered trade mark is required to be proved for any purpose, the tribunal may, if and, so far as it shall think right, accept use of a registered associated trade mark, or of the trade mark with additions or alterations not substantially affecting its identity, as an equivalent for the use required to be proved.

(2) The use of the whole of a registered trade mark shall, for the purpose of this Act, be deemed to be also use of any trade mark being a part thereof and registered in accordance with sub-section (1) of section 15 in the name of the same proprietor.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in section 32, the use of part of the registered trade mark in sub-section (2) shall not be conclusive as to its evidence of distinctiveness for any purpose under this Act.

56. Use of trade mark for export trade and use when form of trade connection changes.—

(1) The application in India of trade mark to goods to be exported from India or in relation to services for use outside India and any other act done in India in relation to goods to be so exported or services so rendered outside India which, if done in relation to goods to be sold or services provided or otherwise traded in within India would constitute use of a trade mark therein, shall be deemed to constitute use of the trade mark in relation to those goods or services for any purpose for which such use is material under this Act or any other law.

(2) The use of a registered trade mark in relation to goods or services between which and the person using the mark any form of connection in the course of trade subsists shall not be deemed to be likely to cause deception or confusion on the ground only that the mark has been or is used in relation to goods or services between which and the said person or a predecessor in title of that person a different form of connection in the course of trade subsisted or subsists.

Chapter 7 Rectification and Correction of the Register

57. Power to cancel or vary registration and to rectify the register.—

(1) On application made in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar by any person aggrieved, the tribunal may make such order as it may think fit for cancelling or varying the registration of a trade mark on the ground of any contravention, or failure to observe a condition entered on the register in relation thereto.

(2) Any person aggrieved by the absence or omission from the register of any entry, or by any entry made in the register without sufficient cause, or by any entry wrongly remaining on the register, or by any error or defect in any entry in the register, may apply in the prescribed manner to the Appellate Board or to the Registrar, and the tribunal may make such order for making, expunging or varying the entry as it may think fit.

(3) The tribunal may in any proceeding under this section decide any question that may be necessary or expedient to decide in connection with the rectification of the register.

(4) The tribunal, of its own motion, may, after giving notice in the prescribed manner to the parties concerned and after giving them an opportunity of being heard, make any order referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2).

(5) Any order of the Appellate Board rectifying the register shall direct that notice of the rectification shall be served upon the Registrar in the prescribed manner who shall upon receipt of such notice rectify the register accordingly.

58. Correction of register.—

(1) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by the registered proprietor,—

(a) correct any error in the name, address or description of the registered proprietor of a trade mark, or any other entry relating to the trade mark;

(b) enter any change in the name, address or description of the person who is registered as proprietor of a trade mark;

(c) cancel the entry of a trade mark on the register;

(d) strike out any goods or classes of goods or services from those in respect of which a trade mark is registered,

and may make any consequential amendment or alteration in the certificate of registration, and for that purpose, may require the certificate of registration to be produced to him.

(2) The Registrar may, on application made in the prescribed manner by a registered user of a trade mark, and after notice to the registered proprietor, correct any error, or enter any change, in the name, address or description of the registered user.

59. Alteration of registered trade marks.—

(1) The registered proprietor of a trade mark may apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar for leave to add to or alter the trade mark in any manner not substantially affecting the identity thereof, and the Registrar may refuse leave or may grant it on such terms and subject to such limitations as he may think fit.

(2) The Registrar may cause an application under this section to be advertised in the prescribed manner in any case where it appears to him that it is expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the prescribed time from the date of advertisement any person gives notice to the Registrar in the prescribed manner of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall, after hearing the parties if so required, decide the matter.

(3) Where leave is granted under this section, the trade mark as altered shall be advertised in the prescribed manner, unless the application has already been advertised under sub-section (2).

60. Adaptation of entries in register to amended or substituted classification of goods or services.—

(1) The Registrar shall not make any amendment of the register which would have the effect of adding any goods or classes of goods or services to those in respect of which a trade mark is registered (whether in one or more classes) immediately before the amendment is to be made or of antedating the registration of a trade mark in respect of any goods or services:

Provided that this sub-section, shall not apply when the Registrar is satisfied that compliance therewith would involve undue complexity and that the addition or antedating, as the case may be, would not affect any substantial quantity of goods or services and would not substantially prejudice the rights of any person.

(2) A proposal so to amend the register shall be brought to the notice of the registered proprietor of the trade mark affected and advertised in the prescribed manner, and may be opposed before the Registrar by any person aggrieved on the ground that the proposed amendment contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1).

Chapter 8 Collective Marks

61. Special provisions for collective marks.—

(1) The provisions of this Act shall apply to collective marks subject to the provisions contained in this Chapter.

(2) In relation to a collective mark the reference in clause (zb) of sub-section (1) of section 2 to distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others shall be construed as a reference to distinguishing the goods or services of members of an association of persons which is the proprietor of the mark from those of others.

62. Collective mark not to be misleading as to character or significance.—

A collective mark shall not be registered if it is likely to deceive or cause confusion on the part of public in particular if it is likely to be taken to be something other than a collective mark, and in such case the Registrar may require that a mark in respect of which application is made for registration comprises some indication that it is a collective mark.

63. Application to be accompanied by regulations governing use of collective marks.—

(1) An application for registration of a collective mark shall be accompanied by the regulations governing the use of such collective mark.

(2) The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify the persons authorised to use the mark, the conditions of membership of the association and, the conditions of use of the mark, including any sanctions against misuse and such other matters as may be prescribed.

64. Acceptance of application and regulations by Registrar.—

If it appears to the Registrar that the requirements for registration are satisfied, he shall accept the application together with the regulations, either unconditionally or subject to such conditions including amendments of the said regulations, if any, as he may deem fit or refuse to accept it and if accepted shall notify the regulations.

65. Regulations to be open to inspection.—

The regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall be open to public inspection in the same way as the register as provided in section 148.

66. Amendment of regulations.—

Any amendment of regulations referred to in sub-section (1) of section 63 shall not be effective unless the amended regulations are filed with the Registrar, and accepted and published by him in accordance with section 64.

67. Infringement proceedings by registered proprietor of collective mark.—

In a suit for infringement instituted by the registered proprietor of a collective mark as plaintiff the court shall take into account any loss suffered or likely to be suffered by authorised users and may give such directions as it thinks fit as to the extent to which the plaintiff shall hold the proceeds of any pecuniary remedy on behalf of such authorised users.

68. Additional grounds for removal of registration of collective mark.—

The registration of a collective mark may also be removed from the register on the ground—

(a) that the manner in which the collective mark has been used by the proprietor or authorised user has caused it to become liable to mislead the public as a collective mark; or

(b) that the proprietor has failed to observe, or to secure the observance of the regulations governing the use of the mark.

Explanation I.—For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, “authorised user” means a member of an association authorised to use the registered collective mark of the association.

Explanation II.—For the purposes of this Act, use of a collective mark by an authorised user referred to in Explanation I shall be deemed to be the use by the registered proprietor thereof.

Chapter 9 Certification Trade Marks

69. Certain provisions of this Act not applicable to certification trade marks.—

The following provisions of this Act shall not apply to certification trade marks, that is to say,—

(a) clauses (a) and (c) of sub-section (1) of section 9;

(b) sections 18, 20 and 21, except as expressly applied by this Chapter;

(c) sections 28, 29, 30, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54 and sub-section (2) of section 56;

(d) Chapter XII, except section 107.

70. Registration of certification trade marks.—

A mark shall not be registrable as a certification trade mark in the name of a person who carries on a trade in goods of the kind certified or a trade of the provision of services of the kind certified.

71. Applications for registration of certification trade marks.—

(1) An application for the registration of a mark as a certification trade mark shall be made to the Registrar in the prescribed manner by the person proposed to be registered as the proprietor thereof, and accompanied by a draft of the regulations to be deposited under section 74.

(2) Subject to the provisions of section 70, the provisions of sections 18, 19 and 22 shall apply in relation to an application under this section as they apply in relation to an application under section 18, subject to the modification that references therein to acceptance of an application shall be construed as references to authorisation to proceed with an application.

(3) In dealing under the said provision with an application under this section, the tribunal shall have regard to the like considerations, so far as relevant, as if the application were application under section 18 and to any other considerations relevant to applications under this section, including the desirability of securing that a certification trade mark shall comprise some indication that it is a certification trade mark.

72. Consideration of application for registration by the Registrar.—

(1) The Registrar shall consider the application made under section 71 with regard to the following matters, namely:—

(a) whether the applicant is competent to certify the goods in respect of which the mark is to be registered;

(b) whether the draft of the regulations to be filed under section 74 is satisfactory;

(c) whether in all the circumstances the registration applied for would be to the public advantage,

and may either—

(i) refuse the application; or

(ii) accept the application and approve the said draft of the regulations either without modification and unconditionally or subject to any conditions or limitations, or to any amendments or modifications of the application or of the regulations, which he thinks requisite having regard to any of the said matters.

(2) Except in the case of acceptance and approval without modification and unconditionally, the Registrar shall not decide any matter under sub-section (1) without giving the applicant an opportunity of being heard

73. Opposition to registration of certification trade marks.—

When an application has been accepted, the Registrar shall, as soon as may be thereafter, cause the application as accepted to be advertised in the prescribed manner, and the provisions of section 21 shall apply in relation to the registration of the mark as they apply in relation to an application under section 18.

74. Filing of regulations governing use of a certification trade mark.—

(1) There shall be filed at the Trade Marks Registry in respect of every mark registered as a certification trade mark regulations for governing the use thereof, which shall include provisions as to the cases in which the proprietor is to certify goods or services and to authorise the use of the certification trade mark, and may contain any other provisions which the Registrar may by general or special order, require or permit to be inserted therein (including provisions conferring a right of appeal to the Registrar against any refusal of the proprietor to certify goods or to authorise the use of the certification trade mark in accordance with the regulations); and regulations so filed shall be open to inspection in like manner as the register as provided in section 148.

(2) The regulations so filed may, on the application of the registered proprietor, be altered by the Registrar.

(3) The Registrar may cause such application to be advertised in any case where it appears to him expedient so to do, and where he does so, if within the time specified in the advertisement any person gives notice of opposition to the application, the Registrar shall not decide the matter without giving the parties an opportunity of being heard.

75. Infringement of certification trade marks.—

The right conferred by section 78 is infringed by any person who, not being the registered proprietor of the certification trade mark or a person authorised by him in that behalf under the regulations filed under section 74, using it in accordance therewith, uses in the course of trade, a mark, which is identical with, or deceptively similar to the certification trade mark in relation to any goods or services in respect of which it is registered, and in such manner as to render the use of the mark likely to be taken as being a use as a trade mark.

76. Acts not constituting infringement of certification trade marks.—

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the following acts do not constitute an infringement of the right to the use of a registered certification trade mark—

(a) where a certification trade mark is registered subject to any conditions or limitations entered on the register, the use of any such mark in any mode, in relation to goods to be sold or otherwise traded in any place, or in relation to goods to be exported to any market or in relation to services for use or available for acceptance in any place, country or territory or in any other circumstances, to which having regard to any such limitations, the registration does not extend;

(b) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services certified by the proprietor of the mark if, as to those goods or services or a bulk of which they form part, the proprietor or another in accordance with his authorisation under the relevant regulations has applied the mark and has not subsequently removed or obliterated it, or the proprietor has at any time expressly or impliedly consented to the use of the mark;

(c) the use of a certification trade mark in relation to goods or services adapted to form part of, or to be accessory to, other goods in relation to which the mark has been used without infringement of the right given as aforesaid or might for the time being be so used, if the use of the mark is reasonably necessary in order to indicate that the goods or services as so adapted and neither the purpose nor the effect of the use of the mark is to indicate otherwise than in accordance with the fact that the goods or services are certified by the proprietor.

(2) Clause (b) of sub-section (1) shall not apply to the case of use consisting of the application of a certification trade mark to goods or services, notwithstanding that they are such goods or services as are mentioned in that clause if such application is contrary to the regulations referred to in that clause.

(3) Where a certification trade mark is one of two or more trade marks registered under this Act, which are identical or nearly resemble each other, the use of any of those trade marks in exercise of the right to the use of that trade mark given by registration, shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right so given to the use of any other of those trade marks.

77. Cancellation or varying of registration of certification trade marks.—

The Registrar may, on the application in the prescribed manner of any person aggrieved and after giving the proprietor an opportunity of opposing the application, make such order as he thinks fit for expunging or varying any entry in the register to a certification trade mark, or for varying the regulations, on any of the following grounds, namely:—

(a) that the proprietor is no longer competent, in the case of any of the goods or services in respect of which the mark is registered, to certify those goods or services;

(b) that the proprietor has failed to observe any provisions of the regulations to be observed on his part;

(c) that it is no longer to the public advantage that the mark should remain registered;

(d) that it is requisite for the public advantage that if the mark remains registered, the regulations should be varied.

78. Rights conferred by registration of certification trade marks.—

(1) Subject to the provisions of sections 34, 35 and 76, the registration of a person as a proprietor of certification trade mark in respect of any goods or services shall, if valid, give to that person the exclusive right to the use of the mark in relation to those goods or services.

(2) The exclusive right to the use of a certification trade mark given under sub-section (1) shall be subject to any conditions and limitations to which the registration is subject.

Chapter 10 Special Provisions for Textile Goods

79. Textile goods.—

The Central Government may prescribe classes of goods (in this Chapter referred to as textile goods) to the trade marks used in relation to which the provisions of this Chapter shall apply; and subject to the said provisions, the other provisions of this Act shall apply to such trade marks as they apply to trade marks used in relation to other classes of goods.

80. Restriction on registration of textile goods.—

(1) In respect of textile goods being piece goods—

(a) no mark consisting of a line heading alone shall be registrable as a trade mark;

(b) a line heading shall not be deemed to be capable of distinguishing;

(c) the registration of trade mark shall not give any exclusive right to the use of a line heading.

(2) In respect of any textile goods, the registration of letters or numerals, or any combination thereof, shall be subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed.

Comments

This section provides that in respect of textile goods being piece goods (i) no mark consisting of a line heading alone can be registered as a trade mark, (ii) a line heading cannot be deemed to be capable of distinguishing, (iii) the registration of trade mark cannot give any exclusive right to the use of a line heading. It further provides that in respect of textile goods, the registration of letters or numerals, or any combination thereof, shall be subject to the prescribed conditions and restrictions.

81. Stamping of piece goods, cotton yarn and thread.—

(1) Piece goods, such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece, which have been manufactured, bleached, dyed, printed or finished in premises which are a factory, as defined in the Factories Act, 1948 (63 of 1948), shall not be removed for sale from the last of such premises in which they underwent any of the said processes without having conspicuously stamped in international form of Indian numerals on each piece the length thereof in standard yards, or in standard yards and a fraction of such a yard, or in standard metres or in standard metres and a fraction of such a metre, according to the real length of the piece, and, except when the goods are sold from the factory for export from India, without being conspicuously marked on each piece with the name of the manufacturer or of the occupier of the premises in which the piece was finally processed or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the piece.

(2) Cotton yarn such as is ordinarily sold in bundles, and cotton thread, namely, sewing, darning, crochet or handicraft thread, which have been manufactured, bleached, dyed or finished in any premises not exempted by the rules made under section 82 shall not be removed for sale from those premises unless, in accordance with the said rules in the case of yarn—

(a) the bundles are conspicuously marked with an indication of the weight of yarn in English or the metric system in each bundles; and

(b) the count of the yarn contained in the bundles and in the case of thread each unit is conspicuously marked with the length or weight of thread in the unit and in such other manner as may be required by the said rules; and

(c) except where the goods are sold from the premises for export from India, unless each bundle or unit is conspicuously marked with the name of the manufacturer or of the wholesale purchaser in India of the goods:

Provided that the rules made under section 82 shall exempt all premises where the work is done by members of one family with or without the assistance of not more than ten other employees, and all premises controlled by a co-operative society where not more than twenty workers are employed in the premises.

82. Determination of character of textile goods by sampling.—

(1) For the purposes of this Act, the Central Government may make rules—

(a) to provide, with respect to any goods which purport or are alleged to be of uniform number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, for the number of samples to be selected and tested and for the selection of the samples;

(b) to provide, for the manner in which for the purposes of section 81 cotton yarn and cotton thread shall be marked with the particulars required by that section, and for the exemption of certain premises used for the manufacture, bleaching, dying or finishing of cotton yarn or cotton thread from the provisions of that section; and

(c) declaring what classes of goods are included in the expression “piece goods such as are ordinarily sold by length or by the piece” for the purpose of section 81, of this Act or clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962).

(2) With respect to any goods for the selection and testing of samples of which provision is not made in any rules for the time being in force under sub-section (1), the court or officer of customs, as the case may be, having occasion to ascertain the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight of the goods, shall by order in writing, determine the number of samples to be selected and tested and the manner in which the samples are to be selected.

(3) The average of the results of the testing in pursuance of rules under sub-

section (1) or of an order under sub-section (2) shall be prima facie evidence of the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

(4) If a person having any claim to, or in relation to, any goods of which samples have been selected and tested in pursuance of rules under sub-section (1), or of an order under sub-section (2), desires that any further samples of the goods be selected and tested, such further samples shall, on his written application and on the payment in advance by him to the court or officer of customs, as the case may be, of such sums for defraying the cost of the further selection and testing as the court or officer may from time to time require, be selected and tested to such extent as may be permitted by rules made by the Central Government in this behalf or as, in the case of goods with respect to which provision is not made in such rules, the court or officer of customs may determine in the circumstances to be reasonable, the samples being selected in the manner prescribed under sub-section (1), or in sub-section (2), as the case may be.

(5) The average of the results of the testing referred to in sub-section (3) and of the further testing under sub-section (4) shall be conclusive proof of the number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight, as the case may be, of the goods.

83. Establishment of Appellate Board1.—

The Central Government shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, establish an Appellate Board to be known as the Intellectual Property Appellate Board to exercise the jurisdiction, powers and authority conferred on it by or under this Act.

Chapter 11 Appellate Board

84. Composition of Appellate Board.—

(1) The Appellate Board shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and such number of other Members, as the Central Government may, deem fit and, subject to the other provisions of this Act, the jurisdiction, powers and authority of the Appellate Board may be exercised by Benches thereof.

(2) Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a Bench shall consist of one Judicial Member and one Technical Member and shall sit at such place as the Central Government may, by notification2 in the Official Gazette, specify.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the Chairman—

(a) may, in addition to discharging the functions of the Judicial Member or Technical Member of the Bench to which he is appointed, discharge the functions of the Judicial Member or, as the case may be, the Technical Member, of any other Bench;

(b) may transfer a Member from one Bench to another Bench;

(c) may authorise the Vice-Chairman, the Judicial Member or the Technical Member appointed to one Bench to discharge also the functions of the Judicial Member or the Technical Member, as the case may be, of another Bench.

(4) Where any Benches are constituted, the Central Government may, from time to time, by notification, make provisions as to the distribution of the business of the Appellate Board amongst the Benches and specify the matters which may be dealt with by each Bench.

(5) If any question arises as to whether any matter falls within the purview of the business allocated to a Bench, the decision of the Chairman shall be final.

Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the expression “matter” includes an appeal under section 91.

(6) If the Members of a Bench differ in opinion on any point, they shall state the point or points on which they differ, and make a reference to the Chairman who shall either hear the point or points himself or refer the case for hearing on such point or points by one or more of the other Members and such point or points shall be decided according to the opinion of the majority of the Members who have heard the case, including those who first heard it.

85. Qualifications for appointment as Chairman, Vice-Chairman, or other Members.—

(1) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Chairman unless he—

(a) is, or has been, a Judge of a High Court; or

(b) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Vice-Chairman.

(2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Vice-Chairman, unless he—

(a) has, for at least two years, held the office of a Judicial Member or a Technical Member; or

(b) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held a post in Grade I of that Service or any higher post for at least five years.

(3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judicial Member, unless he—

(a) has been a member of the Indian Legal Service and has held the post in Grade I of that Service for at least three years; or

(b) has, for at least ten years, held a civil judicial office.

(4) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Technical Member, unless he—

(a) has, for at least ten years, exercised functions of a tribunal under this Act or under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958), or both, and has held a post not lower than the post of a Joint Registrar for at least five years; or

(b) has, for at least ten years, been an advocate of a proven specialised experience in trade mark law.

(5) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (6), the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and every other Member shall be appointed by the President of India.

(6) No appointment of a person as the Chairman shall be made except after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.

86. Term of office of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members.—

The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Members shall hold office as such for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office or until he attains,—

(a) in the case of Chairman and Vice-Chairman, the age of sixty-five years; and

(b) in the case of a Member, the age of sixty-two years,

whichever is earlier.

87. Vice-Chairman or senior-most Member to act as Chairman or discharge his functions in certain circumstances.—

(1) In the event of or any vacancy in the office of the Chairman by reasons of his death, resignation or otherwise, the Vice-Chairman and in his absence the senior-most Member shall act as Chairman until the date on which a new Chairman, appointed in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill such vacancy, enters upon his office.

(2) When the Chairman is unable to discharge his functions owing to his absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-Chairman and in his absence the senior-most Member shall discharge the functions of the Chairman until the date on which the Chairman resumes his duty.

88. Salaries, allowances and other terms and conditions of service of Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members.—

(1) The salaries and allowances payable to, and other terms and conditions of service (including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits) of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members shall be such as may be prescribed.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a person who, immediately before the date of assuming office as the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member was in service of Government, shall be deemed to have retired from service on the date on which he enters upon office as the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member.

89. Resignation and removal.—

(1) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the President of India, resign his office:

Provided that the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member shall, unless he is permitted by the President of India to relinquish his office sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is earlier.

(2) The Chairman, Vice-Chairman or any other Member shall not be removed from his office except by an order made by the President of India on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court in which the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member had been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges.

(3) The Central Government may, by rules, regulate the procedure for the investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Member referred to in sub-section (2).

90. Staff of Appellate Board.—

(1) The Central Government shall determine the nature and categories of the officers and other employees required to assist the Appellate Board in the discharge of its functions and provide the Appellate Board with such officers and other employees as it may think fit.

(2) The salaries and allowances and conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall be such as may be prescribed.

(3) The officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under the general superintendence of the Chairman in the manner as may be prescribed.

91. Appeals to Appellate Board.—

(1) Any person aggrieved by an order or decision of the Registrar under this Act, or the rules made thereunder may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Board within three months from the date on which the order or decision sought to be appealed against is communicated to such person preferring the appeal.

(2) No appeal shall be admitted if it is preferred after the expiry of the period specified under sub-section (1):

Provided that an appeal may be admitted after the expiry of the period specified therefor, if the appellant satisfies the Appellate Board that he had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal within the specified period.

(3) An appeal to the Appellate Board shall be in the prescribed form and shall be verified in the prescribed manner and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order or decision appealed against and by such fees as may be prescribed.

92. Procedure and powers of Appellate Board.—

(1) The Appellate Board shall not be bound by the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) but shall be guided by principles of natural justice and subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, the Appellate Board shall have powers to regulate its own procedure including the fixing of places and times of its hearing.

(2) The Appellate Board shall have, for the purpose of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) while trying a suit in respect of the following matters, namely:—

(a) receiving evidence;

(b) issuing commissions for examination of witnesses;

(c) requisitioning any public record; and

(d) any other matter which may be prescribed.

(3) Any proceeding before the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228, and for the purpose of section 196, of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), and the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a civil court for all the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

93. Bar of jurisdiction of courts, etc.—

No court or other authority shall have or, be entitled to, exercise any jurisdiction, powers or authority in relation to the matters referred to in sub-section (1) of section 91.

94. Bar to appear before Appellate Board.—

On ceasing to hold office, the Chairman, Vice-Chairman or other Members shall not appear before the Appellate Board or the Registrar.

95. Conditions as to making of interim orders.-

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other provisions of this Act or in any other law for the time being in force, no interim order (whether by way of injunction or stay or any other manner) shall be made on, or in any proceedings relating to, an appeal unless –

(a) copies of such appeal and of all documents in support of the plea for such interim order are furnished to the party against whom such appeal is made or proposed to be made, and

(b) opportunity is given to such party to be heard in the matter.

96. Power of Chairman to transfer cases from one Bench to another.—

On the application of any of the parties and after notice to the parties, and after hearing such of them as he may desire to be heard, or on his own motion without such notice, the Chairman may transfer any case pending before one Bench, for disposal, to any other Bench.

97. Procedure for application for rectification, etc., before Appellate Board.—

(1) An application for rectification of the register made to the Appellate Board under section 57 shall be in such form as may be prescribed.

(2) A certified copy of every order or judgment of the Appellate Board relating to a registered trade mark under this Act shall be communicated to the Registrar by the Board and the Registrar shall give effect to the order of the Board and shall, when so directed, amend the entries in, or rectify, the register in accordance with such order.

98. Appearance of Registrar in legal proceedings.—

(1) The Registrar shall have the right to appear and be heard—

(a) in any legal proceedings before the Appellate Board in which the relief sought includes alteration or rectification of the register or in which any question relating to the practice of the Trade Marks Registry is raised;

(b) in any appeal to the Board from an order of the Registrar on an application for registration of a trade mark—

(i) which is not opposed, and the application is either refused by the Registrar or is accepted by him subject to any amendments, modifications, conditions or limitations, or

(ii) which has been opposed and the Registrar considers that his appearance is necessary in the public interest,

and the Registrar shall appear in any case if so directed by the Board.

(2) Unless the Appellate Board otherwise directs, the Registrar may, in lieu of appearing, submit a statement in writing signed by him, giving such particulars as he thinks proper of the proceedings before him relating to the matter in issue or of the grounds of any decision given by him affecting it, or of the practice of the Trade Marks Registry in like cases, or of other matters relevant to the issues and within his knowledge as Registrar, and such statement shall be evidence in the proceeding.

99. Costs of Registrar in proceedings before Appellate Board.—

In all proceedings under this Act before the Appellate Board the costs of the Registrar shall be in the discretion of the Board, but the Registrar shall not be ordered to pay the costs of any of the parties.

100. Transfer of pending proceedings to Appellate Board.—

All cases of appeals against any order or decision of the Registrar and all cases pertaining to rectification of register, pending before any High Court, shall be transferred to the Appellate Board from the date as notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette and the Appellate Board may proceed with the matter either de novo or from the stage it was so transferred.

Chapter 12 Offences, Penalties and Procedure

101. Meaning of applying trade marks and trade descriptions.—

(1) A person shall be deemed to apply a trade mark or mark or trade description to goods or services who—

(a) applies it to the goods themselves or uses it in relation to services; or

(b) applies it to any package in or with which the goods are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, or

(c) places, encloses or annexes any goods which are sold, or exposed for sale, or had in possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture, in or with any package or other thing to which a trade mark or mark or trade description has been applied; or

(d) uses a trade mark or mark or trade description in any manner reasonably likely to lead to the belief that the goods or services in connection with which it is used are designated or described by that trade mark or mark or trade description; or

(e) in relation to the goods or services uses a trade mark or trade description in any sign, advertisement, invoice, catalogue, business letter, business paper, price list or other commercial document and goods are delivered or services are rendered to a person in pursuance of a request or order made by reference to the trade mark or trade description as so used.

(2) A trade mark or mark or trade description shall be deemed to be applied to goods whether it is woven in, impressed on, or otherwise worked into, or annexed or affixed to, the goods or to any package or other thing.

102. Falsifying and falsely applying trade marks.—

(1) A person shall be deemed to falsify a trade mark who, either,—

(a) without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark makes that trade mark or a deceptively similar mark; or

(b) falsifies any genuine trade mark, whether by alteration, addition, effacement or otherwise.

(2) A person shall be deemed to falsely apply to goods or services a trade mark who, without the assent of the proprietor of the trade mark,—

(a) applies such trade mark or a deceptively similar mark to goods or services or any package containing goods;

(b) uses any package bearing a mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the trade mark of such proprietor, for the purpose of packing, filling or wrapping therein any goods other than the genuine goods of the proprietor of the trade mark.

(3) Any trade mark falsified as mentioned in sub-section (1) or falsely applied as mentioned in sub-section (2), is in this Act referred to as a false trade mark.

(4) In any prosecution for falsifying a trade mark or falsely applying a trade mark to goods or services, the burden of proving the assent of the proprietor shall lie on the accused.

103. Penalty for applying false trade marks, trade descriptions, etc.—

Any person who—

(a) falsifies any trade mark; or

(b) falsely applies to goods or services any trade mark; or

(c) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying, a trade mark; or

(d) applies any false trade description to goods or services; or

(e) applies to any goods to which an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are manufactured is required to be applied under section 139, a false indication of such country, place, name or address; or

(f) tampers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin which has been applied to any goods to which it is required to be applied under section 139; or

(g) causes any of the things above-mentioned in this section to be done,

shall, unless he proves that he acted, without intent to defraud, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Comments

Any person who (i) falsifies any trade mark; or (ii) falsely applies to goods or services any trade mark; or (iii) makes, disposes of, or has in his possession, any die, block, machine, plate or other instrument for the purpose of falsifying or of being used for falsifying, a trade mark; or (iv) applies any false description to goods or services; or (v) applies to any good to which an indication of the country or place in which they are made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer or person for whom the goods are manufactured is required to be applied, a false indication of such country, place, name or address; (vi) tempers with, alters or effaces an indication of origin; or (vii) causes any of the things above-mentioned to be done, shall be punishable with imprisonment for six months to three years and with fine of fifty thousand rupees to two lakh rupees.

104. Penalty for selling goods or providing services to which false trade mark or false trade description is applied.—

Any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his possession for sale, goods or things, or provides or hires services, to which any false trade mark or false trade description is applied or which, being required under section 139 to have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or services provided, as the case may be, are without the indications so required, shall, unless he proves,—

(a) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing an offence against this section, he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description or that any offence had been committed in respect of the goods or services; or

(b) that, on demand by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the person from whom he obtained such goods or things or services; or

(c) that otherwise he had acted innocently,

be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.

Comments

This section provides that any person who sells, lets for hire or exposes for sale, or hires or has in his possession for sale, goods or things, or provides or hires services, to which any false trade mark or false trade description is applied or which being required to have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced or the name and address of the manufacturer, or person for whom the goods are manufactured or services provided, are without the indications so required, shall be punishable with imprisonment for six months upto three years and with fine from fifty thousand rupees to two lakh rupees.

105. Enhanced penalty on second or subsequent conviction.—

Whoever having already been convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees:

Provided further that for the purposes of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made before the commencement of this Act.

Comments

This section provides that whoever has already been convicted is again convicted shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence with imprisonment which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees. The court is, however, empowered to impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term less than one year and a fine of less than one lakh rupees for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgment.

106. Penalty for removing piece goods, etc., contrary to section 81.—

If any person removes or attempts to remove or causes or attempts to cause to be removed for sale from any premises referred to in section 81 or sells or exposes for sale or has in his possession for sale or for any purpose of trade or manufacture piece goods or cotton yarn or cotton thread which is not marked as required by that section, every such piece and every such bundle of yarn and all such thread and everything used for the packing thereof shall be forfeited to Government and such person shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Comments

This section provides that if any person removes or attempts to remove for sale piece goods or cotton yarn or cotton threads which are not marked in accordance with the provisions of the Act, all such goods will be forfeited to the Government and the person shall be punishable with fine upto one thousand rupees.

107. Penalty for falsely representing a trade mark as registered.—

(1) No person shall make any representation—

(a) with respect to a mark, not being a registered trade mark, to the effect that it is a registered trade mark; or

(b) with respect to a part of a registered trade mark, not being a part separately registered as a trade mark, to the effect that it is separately registered as a trade mark; or

(c) to the effect that a registered trade mark is registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact registered; or

(d) to the effect that registration of a trade mark gives an exclusive right to the use thereof in any circumstances in which, having regard to limitation entered on the register, the registration does not in fact give that right.

(2) If any person contravenes any of the provisions of sub-section (1), he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the use in India in relation to a trade mark of the word “registered”, or of any other expression, symbol or sign referring whether expressly or impliedly to registration, shall be deemed to import a reference to registration in the register, except—

(a) where that word or other expression, symbol or sign is used in direct association with other words delineated in characters at least as large as those in which that word or other expression, symbol or sign is delineated and indicating that the reference is to registration as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India being a country under the law of which the registration referred to is in fact in force; or

(b) where that other expression, symbol or sign is of itself such as to indicate that the reference is to such registration as is mentioned in clause (a); or

(c) where that word is used in relation to a mark registered as a trade mark under the law of a country outside India and in relation solely to goods to be exported to that country or in relation to services for use in that country.

Comments

This section makes false representation of a trade mark as registered as an offence. The punishment for the offence is imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or with fine or with both. It also provides that where the mark in question is registered under the law of the country outside India, the use of the word or other expression to denote such registration in foreign country is permissible.

108. Penalty for improperly describing a place of business as connected with the Trade Marks Office.—

If any person uses on his place of business, or on any document issued by him, or otherwise, words which would reasonably lead to the belief that his place of business is, or is officially connected with, the Trade Marks Office, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Comments

The use of any words which would lead to the belief that a person’s place of business is officially connected with the Trade Marks Office is a punishable offence with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or fine or with both.

109. Penalty for falsification of entries in the register.—

If any person makes, or causes to be made, a false entry in the register, or a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of an entry in the register, or produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered, in evidence any such writing, knowing the entry or writing to be false, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.

Comments

This section contains provisions for penalty for falsification of entries in the register. This offence is punishable with imprisonment extending to two years or fine or with both. This clause corresponds to section 83 of the existing Act.

110. No offence in certain cases.—

The provisions of sections 102, 103, 104 and 105 shall, in relation to a registered trade mark or proprietor of such mark, be subject to the rights created or recognised by this Act and no act or omission shall be deemed to be an offence under the aforesaid sections if,—

(a) the alleged offence relates to a registered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under this Act; and

(b) the alleged offence relates to a registered or an unregistered trade mark and the act or omission is permitted under any other law for the time being in force.

Comments

This section provides that when an act or omission shall not be deemed to be an offence under sections 102, 103, 104 and 105, if the alleged offence relates to a registered or unregistered mark, the act or omission is permitted by this Act or under any other law.

111. Forfeiture of goods.—

(1) Where a person is convicted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 or is acquitted of an offence under section 103 or section 104 on proof that he acted without intent to defraud, or under section 104 on proof of the matters specified in clause (a), clause (b) or clause (c) of that section, the court convicting or acquitting him may direct the forfeiture to Government of all goods and things by means of, or in relation to, which the offence has been committed, or but for such proof as aforesaid would have been committed.

(2) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction and an appeal lies against the conviction, an appeal shall lie against the forfeiture also.

(3) When a forfeiture is directed on acquittal and the goods or things to which the direction relates are of value exceeding fifty rupees, an appeal against the forfeiture may be preferred, within thirty days from the date of the direction, to the court to which in appealable cases appeals lie from sentences of the court which directed the forfeiture.

(4) When a forfeiture is directed on a conviction, the court, before whom the person is convicted, may order any forfeited articles to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the court thinks fit.

Comments

This section provides that the court can direct forfeiture to Government of all the goods relating to which an offence has been committed. The court may either order the forfeited goods to be destroyed or otherwise disposed of. Where an appeal against conviction lies, the appeal will also lie against the forfeiture.

112. Exemption of certain persons employed in ordinary course of business.—

Where a person accused of an offence under section 103 proves—

(a) that in the ordinary course of his business he is employed on behalf of other persons to apply trade marks or trade descriptions, or as the case may be, to make dies, blocks, machines, plates, or other instruments for making, or being used in making, trade marks; and

(b) that in the case which is the subject of the charge he was so employed, and was not interested in the goods or other thing by way of profit or commission dependent on the sale of such goods or providing of services, as the case may be; and

(c) that, having taken all reasonable precautions against committing the offence charged, he had, at the time of the commission of the alleged offence, no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description; and

(d) that, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, he gave all the information in his power with respect to the persons on whose behalf the trade mark or trade description was applied, he shall be acquitted.

Comments

This section provides that if the person accused of an offence proves, inter alia, that he had at the time of commission of the alleged offence no reason to suspect the genuineness of the trade mark or trade description and that in the ordinary course of business he is employed on behalf of the other persons to apply trade mark or trade description including dies, blocks, machines, etc., he shall not be liable to any punishment.

113. Procedure where invalidity of registration is pleaded by the accused.—

(1) Where the offence charged under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 is in relation to a registered trade mark and the accused pleads that the registration of the trade mark is invalid, the following procedure shall be followed:—

(a) If the court is satisfied that such defence is prima facie tenable, it shall not proceed with the charge but shall adjourn the proceeding for three months from the date on which the plea of the accused is recorded to enable the accused to file an application before the Appellate Board under this Act, for the rectification of the register on the ground that the registration is invalid.

(b) If the accused proves to the court that he has made such application within the time so limited or within such further time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the further proceedings in the prosecution shall stand stayed till the disposal of such application for rectification.

(c) If within a period of three months or within such extended time as may be allowed by the court the accused fails to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register, the court shall proceed with the case as if the registration were valid.

(2) Where before the institution of a complaint of an offence referred to in sub-section (1), any application for the rectification of the register concerning the trade mark in question on the ground of invalidity of the registration thereof has already been properly made to and is pending before the tribunal, the court shall stay the further proceedings in the prosecution pending the disposal of the application aforesaid and shall determine the charge against the accused in conformity with the result of the application for rectification in so far as the complainant relies upon the registration of his mark.

Comments

This section provides that if the court is satisfied with the defence of invalidity of the registration, it may adjourn the proceedings for three months to enable an application for rectification of the register to be filed before the Appellate Board. If the accused proves that he has made such application, further proceedings shall stand stayed till the disposal of rectification application. On the other hand, if within the period allowed by the court, the accused fails to apply for rectification before the Appellate Board, the court is bound to proceed with the case as if registration is valid. It also provides that where any application for rectification is pending before the institution of the criminal proceedings, the court shall stay the proceedings in the prosecution pending the outcome of the rectification application and determine the charge in conformity thereof to the extent that the complainant relies on the registration of this mark.

114. Offences by companies.—

(1) If the person committing an offence under this Act is a company, the company as well as every person in charge of, and responsible to, the company for the conduct of its business at the time of the commission of the offence shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or that the commission of the offence is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section—

(a) “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

115. Cognizance of certain offences and the powers of police officer for search and seizure.—

(1) No court shall take cognizance of an offence under section 107 or section 108 or section 109 except on complaint in writing made by the Registrar or any officer authorised by him in writing:

Provided that in relation to clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 107, a court shall take cognizance of an offence on the basis of a certificate issued by the Registrar to the effect that a registered trade mark has been represented as registered in respect of any goods or services in respect of which it is not in fact registered.

(2) No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class shall try an offence under this Act.

(3) The offences under section 103 or section 104 or section 105 shall be cognizable.

(4) Any police officer not below the rank of deputy superintendent of police or equivalent, may, if he is satisfied that any of the offences referred to in sub-section (3) has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, search and seize without warrant the goods, die, block, machine, plate, other instruments or things involved in committing the offence, wherever found, and all the articles so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be:

Provided that the police officer, before making any search and seizure, shall obtain the opinion of the Registrar on facts involved in the offence relating to trade mark and shall abide by the opinion so obtained.

(5) Any person having an interest in any article seized under sub-section (4), may, within fifteen days of such seizure, make an application to the Judicial Magistrate of the first class or Metropolitan Magistrate, as the case may be, for such article being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the applicant and the prosecution, shall make such order on the application as he may deem fit.

116. Evidence of origin of goods imported by sea.—

In the case of goods brought into India by sea, evidence of the port of shipment shall, in a prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods, be prima facie evidence of the place or country in which the goods are made or produced.

Comments

Where the goods are brought into India by sea, evidence of port of shipment will be prima facie evidence of the country of origin in any prosecution for an offence under the Act or the Customs Act, 1962.

117. Costs of defence or prosecution.—

In any prosecution under this Act, the court may order such costs to be paid by the accused to the complainant, or by the complainant to the accused, as the court deems reasonable having regard to all the circumstances of the case and the conduct of the parties and the costs so awarded shall be recoverable as if they were a fine.

118. Limitation of prosecution.—

No prosecution for an offence under this Act or under clause (b) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the said Act for the protection of trade marks, relating to import of goods shall be commenced after expiration of three years next after the commission of the offence charged, or two years after the discovery thereof by the prosecutor, whichever expiration first happens

119. Information as to commission of offence.—

An officer of the Government whose duty it is to take part in the enforcement of the provisions of this Chapter shall not be compelled in any court to say whence he got any information as to the commission of any offence against this Act.

120. Punishment of abetment in India of acts done out of India.—

If any person, being within India, abets the commission, without India, of any act which, if committed in India, would, under this Act, be an offence, he may be tried for such abetment in any place in India in which he may be found, and be punished therefor with the punishment to which he would be liable if he had himself committed in that place the act which he abetted.

Comments

This section provides that any person in India abetting the commission of any offence which, if committed in India would be an offence shall be tried for such abetment and shall be punished.

121. Instructions of Central Government as to permissible variation to be observed by criminal courts.—

The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, issue instructions for the limits of variation, as regards number, quantity, measure, gauge or weight which are to be recognized by criminal courts as permissible in the case of any goods.

Chapter 13 Miscellaneous

122. Protection of action taken in good faith.—

No suit or other legal proceedings shall lie against any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

123. Certain persons to be public servants.—

Every person appointed under this Act and every Member of the Appellate Board shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

124. Stay of proceedings where the validity of registration of the trade mark is questioned, etc.—

(1) Where in any suit for infringement of a trade mark—

(a) the defendant pleads that registration of the plaintiff’s trade mark is invalid; or

(b) the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff pleads the invalidity of registration of the defendant’s trade mark, the court trying the suit (hereinafter referred to as the court), shall,—

(i) if any proceedings for rectification of the register in relation to the plaintiff’s or defendant’s trade mark are pending before the Registrar or the Appellate Board, stay the suit pending the final disposal of such proceedings;

(ii) if no such proceedings are pending and the court is satisfied that the plea regarding the invalidity of the registration of the plaintiff’s or defendant’s trade mark is prima facie tenable, raise an issue regarding the same and adjourn the case for a period of three months from the date of the framing of the issue in order to enable the party concerned to apply to the Appellate Board for rectification of the register.

(2) If the party concerned proves to the court that he has made any such application as is referred to in clause (b) (ii) of sub-section (1) within the time specified therein or within such extended time as the court may for sufficient cause allow, the trial of the suit shall stand stayed until the final disposal of the rectification proceedings.

(3) If no such application as aforesaid has been made within the time so specified or within such extended time as the court may allow, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be deemed to have been abandoned and the court shall proceed with the suit in regard to the other issues in the case.

(4) The final order made in any rectification proceedings referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall be binding upon the parties and the court shall dispose of the suit conformably to such order in so far as it relates to the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark.

(5) The stay of a suit for the infringement of a trade mark under this section shall not preclude the court from making any interlocutory order (including any order granting an injunction directing account to be kept, appointing a receiver or attaching any property), during the period of the stay of the suit

125. Application for rectification of register to be made to Appellate Board in certain cases.—

(1) Where in a suit for infringement of a registered trade mark the validity of the registration of the plaintiff’s trade mark is questioned by the defendant or where in any such suit the defendant raises a defence under clause (e) of sub-section (2) of section 30 and the plaintiff questions the validity of the registration of the defendant’s trade mark, the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark concerned shall be determined only on an application for the rectification of the register and, notwithstanding anything contained in section 47 or section 57, such application shall be made to the Appellate Board and not to the Registrar.

(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), where an application for rectification of the register is made to the Registrar under section 47 or section 57, the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, refer the application at any stage of the proceedings to the Appellate Board.

Comments

This section provides that in certain cases, the application for rectification of register

should be made to the Appellate Board. Where in a suit for infringement of a registered trade mark, the validity of the registered trade mark is questioned, the validity of the mark is determined only on an application for the rectification of the registered trade mark made to the Appellate Board.

126. Implied warranty on sale of marked goods.—

Where a mark or a trade mark or trade description has been applied to the goods on sale or in the contract for sale of any goods or in relation to any service, the seller shall be deemed to warrant that the mark is a genuine mark and not falsely applied, or that the trade description is not a false trade description within the meaning of this Act unless the contrary is expressed in writing signed by or on behalf of the seller and delivered at the time of the sale of goods or providing of services on contract to and accepted by the buyer.

Comments

This section provides that on goods for sale if a trade mark or trade description is given or applied, there is implied warranty that the mark is a genuine mark.

127. Powers of Registrar.—

In all proceedings under this Act before the Registrar,—

(a) the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court for the purposes of receiving evidence, administering oaths, enforcing the attendance of witnesses, compelling the discovery and production of documents and issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses;

(b) the Registrar may, subject to any rules made in this behalf under section 157, make such orders as to costs as he considers reasonable, and any such order shall be executable as a decree of a civil court:

Provided that the Registrar shall have no power to award costs to or against any party on an appeal to him against a refusal of the proprietor of a certification trade mark to certify goods or provision of services or to authorise the use of the mark;

(c) the Registrar may, on an application made in the prescribed manner, review his own decision.

Comments

This section provides that the Registrar shall have all the powers of a civil court, including award of reasonable costs, subject to rules to be made in this behalf, except that he will have no power to award costs to any party on an appeal over the refusal of the proprietor of a certification trade mark to certify the goods.

128. Exercise of discretionary power by Registrar.—

Subject to the provisions of section 131, the Registrar shall not exercise any discretionary or other power vested in him by this Act or the rules made thereunder adversely to a person applying for the exercise of that power without (if so required by that person within the prescribed time) giving to the person an opportunity of being heard.

129. Evidence before Registrar.-

In any proceeding under this Act before the Registrar, evidence shall be given by affidavit.

Provided that the Registrar may, if he thinks fit, take oral evidence in lieu of, or in addition to, such evidence by affidavit.

130. Death of party to a proceeding.—

If a person who is a party to a proceeding under this Act (not being a proceeding before the Appellate Board or a court) dies pending the proceeding, the Registrar may, on request, and on proof to his satisfaction of the transmission of the interest of the deceased person, substitute in the proceeding his successor in interest in his place, or, if the Registrar is of opinion that the interest of the deceased person is sufficiently represented by the surviving parties, permit the proceeding to continue without the substitution of his successor in interest.

Comments

This section provides that in case of death of a party to a proceeding during the course of the proceedings, the Registrar, on proof to his satisfaction may allow substitution of his successor or may allow the proceeding to continue with the surviving parties.

131. Extension of time.—

(1) If the Registrar is satisfied, on application made to him in the prescribed manner and accompanied by the prescribed fee, that there is sufficient cause for extending the time for doing any act (not being a time expressly provided in this Act), whether the time so specified has expired or not, he may, subject to such conditions as he may think fit to impose, extend the time and inform the parties accordingly.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall be deemed to require the Registrar to hear the parties before disposing of an application for extension of time, and no appeal shall lie from any order of the Registrar under this section.

132. Abandonment.—

Where, in the opinion of the Registrar, an applicant is in default in the prosecution of an application filed under this Act or any Act relating to trade marks in force prior to the commencement of this Act, the Registrar may, by notice require the applicant to remedy the default within a time specified and after giving him, if so, desired, an opportunity of being heard, treat the application as abandoned, unless the default is remedied within the time specified in the notice.

Comments

If the Registrar is of the opinion that the applicant has defaulted in the prosecution of his application, he may by a notice require him to remedy the default after giving him an opportunity to be heard. He may treat the application as abandoned unless the default is remedied within the time specified by him.

133. Preliminary advice by the Registrar as to distinctiveness.—

(1) The Registrar may, on application made to him in the prescribed manner by any person who proposes to apply for the registration of a trade mark, give advice as to whether the trade mark appears to him prima facie to be distinctive.

(2) If, on an application for the registration of a trade mark as to which the Registrar has given advice as aforesaid in the affirmative made within three months after the advice was given, the Registrar, after further investigation or consideration, gives notice to the applicant of objection on the ground that the trade mark is not distinctive, the applicant shall be entitled, on giving notice of withdrawal of the application within the prescribed period, to have repaid to him any fee paid on the filing of the application.

134. Suit for infringement, etc., to be instituted before District Court.—

(1) No suit—

(a) for the infringement of a registered trade mark; or

(b) relating to any right in a registered trade mark; or

(c) for passing off arising out of the use by the defendant of any trade mark which is identical with or deceptively similar to the plaintiff’s trade mark, whether registered or unregistered, shall be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court having jurisdiction to try the suit.

(2) For the purpose of clauses (a) and (b) of sub-section (1), a “District Court having jurisdiction” shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908) or any other law for the time being in force, include a District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction, at the time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or proceeding, or, where there are more than one such persons any of them, actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

Explanation.—For the purposes of sub-section (2), “person” includes the registered proprietor and the registered user.

Comments

This section stipulates that the forum for institution of infringement proceedings, etc., is the District Court. The term “District Court having jurisdiction” includes a District Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction, the person, or one of the persons, instituting the suit or other proceedings, actually or voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

135. Relief in suits for infringement or for passing off.—

(1) The relief which a court may grant in any suit for infringement or for passing off referred to in section 134 includes injunction (subject to such terms, if any, as the court thinks fit) and at the option of the plaintiff, either damages or an account of profits, together with or without any order for the delivery-up of the infringing labels and marks for destruction or erasure.

(2) The order of injunction under sub-section (1) may include an ex parte injunction or any interlocutory order for any of the following matters, namely:—

(a) for discovery of documents;

(b) preserving of infringing goods, documents or other evidence which are related to the subject-matter of the suit;

(c) restraining the defendant from disposing of or dealing with his assets in a manner which may adversely affect plaintiff’s ability to recover damages, costs or other pecuniary remedies which may be finally awarded to the plaintiff.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the court shall not grant relief by way of damages (other than nominal damages) or on account of profits in any case—

(a) where in a suit for infringement of a trade mark, the infringement complained of is in relation to a certification trade mark or collective mark; or

(b) where in a suit for infringement the defendant satisfies the court—

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit, he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was on the register or that the plaintiff was a registered user using by way of permitted use; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff’s right in the trade mark, he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark in relation to goods or services in respect of which it was registered; or

(c) where in a suit for passing off, the defendant satisfies the court—

(i) that at the time he commenced to use the trade mark complained of in the suit he was unaware and had no reasonable ground for believing that the trade mark of the plaintiff was in use; and

(ii) that when he became aware of the existence and nature of the plaintiff’s trade mark he forthwith ceased to use the trade mark complained of.

Comments

This section provides that the court may grant an ex parte injunction and in particular orders intended to preserve evidence or documents relating to the subject matter of the suit so that the defendant is restrained from dealing with assets in a manner which would affect the plaintiff’s ability to recover damages or other pecuniary remedies after final orders.

136. Registered user to be impleaded in certain proceedings.—

(1) In every proceeding under Chapter VII or under section 91, every registered user of a trade mark using by way of permitted use, who is not himself an applicant in respect of any proceeding under that Chapter or section, shall be made a party to the proceeding.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law, a registered user so made a party to the proceeding shall not be liable for any costs unless he enters an appearance and takes part in the proceeding.

137. Evidence of entries in register, etc., and things done by the Registrar.—

(1) A copy of any entry in the register or of any document referred to in sub-section (1) of section 148 purporting to be certified by the Registrar and sealed with the seal of the Trade Marks Registry shall be admitted in evidence in all courts and in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

(2) A certificate purporting to be under the hand of the Registrar as to any entry, matter or thing that he is authorised by this Act or the rules to make or do shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made, and of the contents thereof, or of the matter or things having been done or not done.

Comments

This section provides that certificate issued by the Registrar shall be prima facie evidence in all proceedings without further proof or production of the original.

138. Registrar and other officers not compellable to produce register, etc.—

The Registrar or any officer of the Trade Marks Registry shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special cause.

139. Power to require goods to show indication of origin.—

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette. require that goods of any class specified in the notification which are made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, or, which are made or produced within the limits of India, shall, from such date as may be appointed by the notification not being less than three months from its issue, have applied to them an indication of the country or place in which they were made or produced, or of the name and address of the manufacturer or the person for whom the goods were manufactured.

(2) The notification may specify the manner in which such indication shall be applied that is to say, whether to goods themselves or in any other manner, and the times or occasions on which the presence of the indication shall be necessary, that is to say, whether on importation only, or also at the time of sale, whether by wholesale or retail or both.

(3) No notification under this section shall be issued, unless application is made for its issue by persons or associations substantially representing the interests of dealers in, or manufacturers, producers, or users of, the goods concerned, or unless the Central Government is otherwise convinced that it is necessary in the public interest to issue the notification, with or without such inquiry, as the Central Government may consider necessary.

(4) The provisions of section 23 of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897) shall apply to the issue of a notification under this section as they apply to the making of a rule or bye-law the making of which is subject to the condition of previous publication.

(5) A notification under this section shall not apply to goods made or produced beyond the limits of India and imported into India, if in respect of those goods, the Commissioner of Customs is satisfied at the time of importation that they are intended for exportation whether after transhipment in or transit through India or otherwise.

140. Power to require information of imported goods bearing false trade marks.—

(1) The proprietor or a licensee of a registered trade mark may give notice in writing to the Collector of Customs to prohibit the importation of any goods if the import of the said goods constitute infringement under clause (c) of sub-section (6) of section 29.

(2) Where goods, which are prohibited to be imported into India by notification of the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), for the protection of trade marks, and are liable to confiscation on importation under that Act, are imported into India, the Commissioner of Customs if, upon representation made to him, he has reason to believe that the trade mark complained of is used as a false trade mark, may require the importer of the goods, or his agent, to produce any documents in his possession relating to the goods and to furnish information as to the name and address of the person by whom the goods were consigned to India and the name and address of the person to whom the goods were sent in India.

(3) The importer or his agent shall, within fourteen days, comply with the requirement as aforesaid, and if he fails to do so, he shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees.

(4) Any information obtained from the importer of the goods or his agent under this section may be communicated by the Commissioner of Customs to the registered proprietor or registered user of the trade mark which is alleged to have been used as a false trade mark.

141. Certificate of validity.—

If in any legal proceeding for rectification of the register before the Appellate Board a decision is on contest given in favour of the registered proprietor of the trade mark on the issue as to the validity of the registration of the trade mark, the Appellate Board may grant a certificate to that effect, and if such a certificate is granted, then, in any subsequent legal proceeding in which the said validity comes into question the said proprietor on obtaining a final order or judgment in his favour affirming validity of the registration of the trade mark shall, unless the said final order or judgment for sufficient reason directs otherwise, be entitled to his full cost charges and expenses as between legal practitioner and client.

Comments

This section provides that where in any legal proceeding for rectification of Register a decision is given in favour of the registered proprietor the Appellate Board can grant a certificate of validity.

142. Groundless threats of legal proceedings.—

(1) Where a person, by means of circulars, advertisements or otherwise, threatens a person with an action or proceeding for infringement of a trade mark which is registered, or alleged by the first-mentioned person to be registered, or with some other like proceeding, a person aggrieved may, whether the person making the threats is or is not the registered proprietor or the registered user of the trade mark, bring a suit against the first-mentioned person and may obtain a declaration to the effect that the threats are unjustifiable, and an injunction against the continuance of the threats and may recover such damages (if any) as he has sustained, unless the first-mentioned person satisfies the court that the trade mark is registered and that the acts in respect of which the proceedings were threatened, constitute, or, if done, would constitute, an infringement of the trade mark.

(2) The last preceding sub-section does not apply if the registered proprietor of the trade mark, or a registered user acting in pursuance of sub-section (1) of section 52 with due diligence commences and prosecutes an action against the person threatened for infringement of the trade mark.

(3) Nothing in this section shall render a legal practitioner or a registered trade marks agent liable to an action under this section in respect of an act done by him in his professional capacity on behalf of a client.

(4) A suit under sub-section (1) shall not be instituted in any court inferior to a District Court.

Comments

This section protects the person against groundless threats of infringement by giving him an opportunity to bring a suit against the person making such threats and obtain a declaration that the threats are unjustifiable and an injunction against the continuance of the threats and recovery of damages.

143. Address for service.—

An address for service stated in an application or notice of opposition shall for the purposes of the application or notice of opposition be deemed to be the address of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be, and all documents in relation to the application or notice of opposition may be served by leaving them at or sending them by post to the address for service of the applicant or opponent, as the case may be.

144. Trade usages, etc., to be taken into consideration.—

In any proceeding relating to a trade mark, the tribunal shall admit evidence of the usages of the trade concerned and of any relevant trade mark or trade name or get up legitimately used by other persons.

145. Agents.—

Where, by or under this Act, any act, other than the making of an affidavit, is required to be done before the Registrar by any person, the act may, subject to the rules made in this behalf, be done instead of by that person himself, by a person duly authorised in the prescribed manner, who is—

(a) a legal practitioner, or

(b) a person registered in the prescribed manner as a trade marks agent, or

(c) a person in the sole and regular employment of the principal.

Comments

This section provides that if any act is required to be done before the Registrar by any person, this may be done by him or by a legal practitioner, a trade marks agent or by his employee if he is duly authorised by him.

146. Marks registered by an agent or representative without authority.—

If an agent or a representative of the proprietor of a registered trade mark, without authority uses or attempts to register or registers the mark in his own name, the proprietor shall be entitled to oppose the registration applied for or secure its cancellation or rectification of the register so as to bring him as the registered proprietor of the said mark by assignment in his favour:

Provided that such action shall be taken within three years of the registered proprietor of the trade mark becoming aware of the conduct of the agent or representative.

Comments

This section protects the rights of the proprietor of a trade mark. If his agent or representative attempts to register or registers the mark in his own name, without authority, the proprietor is entitled to oppose the application or to apply for rectification so as to bring him as the registered proprietor. The time within which such action has to be taken is three years from the date he is aware of the conduct of the agent.

147. Indexes.—

There shall be kept under the direction and supervision of the Registrar—

(a) an index of registered trade marks,

(b) an index of trade marks in respect of which applications for registration are pending,

(c) an index of the names of the proprietors of registered trade marks, and

(d) an index of the names of registered users.

Comments

This section provides for keeping different indexes at the trade marks registry, viz., indexes of registered and pending trade marks, registered proprietors’ index and index of registered users.

148. Documents open to public inspection.—

(1) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (4) of section 49,—

(a) the register and any document upon which any entry in the register is based;

(b) every notice of opposition to the registration of a trade mark application for rectification before the Registrar, counter-statement thereto, and any affidavit or document filed by the parties in any proceedings before the Registrar;

(c) all regulations deposited under section 63 or section 74, and all applications under section 66 or section 77 for varying such regulations;

(d) the indexes mentioned in section 147; and

(e) such other documents as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, shall, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, be open to public inspection at the Trade Marks Registry:

Provided that when such register is maintained wholly or partly on computer, the inspection of such register under this section shall be made by inspecting the computer print-out of the relevant entry in the register so maintained on computer.

(2) Any person may, on an application to the Registrar and on payment of such fees as may be prescribed, obtain a certified copy of any entry in the register or any document referred to in sub-section (1).

149. Reports of Registrar to be placed before Parliament.—

The Central Government shall cause to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution by or under the Registrar of this Act.

150. Fees and surcharge.—

(1) There shall be paid in respect of applications and registration and other matters under this Act such fees and surcharge as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Registrar, the Registrar shall not do that act until the fee has been paid.

(3) Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the Trade Marks Registry, the document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the registry until the fee has been paid.

151. Savings in respect of certain matters in Chapter XII.—

Nothing in Chapter XII shall—

(a) exempt any person from any suit or other proceeding which might, but for anything in that Chapter, be brought against him; or

(b) entitle any person to refuse to make a complete discovery, or to answer any question or interrogatory in any suit or other proceeding, but such discovery or answer shall not be admissible in evidence against such person in any such prosecution for an offence under that Chapter or against clause (h) of section 112 of the Customs Act, 1962 (52 of 1962), relating to confiscation of goods under clause (d) of section 111 of that Act and notified by the Central Government under clause (n) of sub-section (2) of section 11 thereof for the protection of trade marks relating to import of goods; or

(c) be construed so as to render liable to any prosecution or punishment any servant of a master resident in India who in good faith acts in obedience to the instructions of such master, and, on demand made by or on behalf of the prosecutor, has given full information as to his master and as to the instructions which he has received from his master.

152. Declaration as to ownership of trade mark not registrable under the Registration Act, 1908.—

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), no document declaring or purporting to declare the ownership or title of a person to a trade mark other than a registered trade mark shall be registered under that Act.

153. Government to be bound.—

The provisions of this Act shall be binding on the Government.

154. Special provisions relating to applications for registration from citizens of convention countries.—

(1) With a view to the fulfilment of a treaty, convention or arrangement with any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation outside India which affords to citizens of India similar privileges as granted to its own citizens, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such country or group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation to be a convention country or group of countries or union of countries, or Inter-Governmental Organisations as the case may be, for the purposes of this Act.

(2) Where a person has made an application for the registration of a trade mark in a convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation and that person, or his legal representative or assignee, makes an application for the registration of the trade mark in India within six months after the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisations the trade mark shall, if registered under this Act, be registered as of the date on which the application was made in the convention country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental organisations and that date shall be deemed for the purposes of this Act to be the date of registration.

(3) Where applications have been made for the registration of a trade mark in two or more convention countries or country which are members of group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation the period of six months referred to in the last preceding sub-section shall be reckoned from the date on which the earlier or earliest of those applications was made.

(4) Nothing in this Act shall entitle the proprietor of a trade mark to recover damages for infringement which took place prior to the date of application for registration under this Act.

155. Provision as to reciprocity.—-

Where any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation specified by the Central Government in this behalf by notification in the Official Gazette does not accord to citizens of India the same rights in respect of the registration and protection of trade marks as it accords to its own nationals, no national of such country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation, as the case may be, shall be entitled, either solely or jointly with any other person,—

(a) to apply for the registration of, or be registered as the proprietor of, a trade mark;

(b) to be registered as the assignee of the proprietor of a registered trade mark; or

(c) to apply for registration or be registered as a registered user of a trade mark under section 49.

Comments

This section contains provisions as to reciprocity. If any country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisation does not accord to citizens of India the same rights as to registration and protection of trade marks as it accords to its own nationals, no national of that country or country which is a member of a group of countries or union of countries or Inter-Governmental Organisations, as the case may be, is entitled to apply for registration of a trade mark, to apply for registration as a registered user of trade mark or to be registered as the assignee of the registered proprietor of a trade mark in India.

156. Power of Central Government to remove difficulties.—

(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be necessary for removing the difficulty:

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the commencement of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

157. Power to make rules.—

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and subject to the conditions of previous publication, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(i) the matters to be included in the Register of Trade Marks under sub-section (1) of section 6, and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of records on computer floppies or diskettes or in any other electronic form under sub-section (2) of that section;

(ii) the manner of publication of alphabetical index of classification of goods and services under sub-section (1) of section 8;

(iii) the manner in which the Registrar may notify a word as an international non-proprietary name under section 13:

(iv) the manner of making an application for dissolution of an association under sub-section (5) of section 16;

(v) the manner of making an application for registration of a trade mark under sub-section (1) of section 18;

(vi) the manner of advertising of an application for registration under sub-section (1), and the manner of notifying corrections or amendments under sub-section (2), of section 20;

(vii) the manner of making an application and the fee payable for such application giving notice under sub-section (1) and sending counter-statements under sub-section (2) and submission of evidence and the time therefor under sub-section (4) of section 21;

(viii) the form of certificate of registration under sub-section (2), and the manner of giving notice to the applicant under sub-section (3) of section 23;

(ix) the forms of application for renewal and restoration the time within which such application is to be made and fee and surcharge if any payable with each application, under section 25 and the time within which the Registrar shall send a notice and the manner of such notice under sub-section (3) of that section;

(x) the manner of submitting statement of cases under sub-section (2) of section 40;

(xi) the manner of making an application by the proprietor of a trade mark under section 4l;

(xii) the manner of making an application for assignment or transmission of a certification trade mark under section 43;

(xiii) the manner of making an application to the Registrar to register title under sub-section (1) of section 45;

(xiv) the manner in which and the period within which an application is to be made under sub-section (4) of section 46;

(xv) the manner of marking an application under sub-section (2) of section 47;

(xvi) the manner of making an application, documents and other evidence to accompany such application under sub-section (1) and the manner in which notice is to be issued under sub-section (3) of section 49;

(xvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of issuing a notice under sub-section (2) and the procedure for cancelling a registration under sub-section (3) of section 50;

(xviii) the manner of making applications under sub-sections (1) and (2), the manner of giving notice under sub-section (4) and the manner of service of notice of rectification under sub-section (5) of section 57;

(xix) the manner of making an application under section 58;

(xx) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1), the manner of advertising an application, time and manner of notice by which application may be opposed under sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 59;

(xxi) the manner of advertisement under sub-section (2) of section 60;

(xxii) the other matters to be specified in the regulations under sub-section (2) of section 63;

(xxiii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) of section 71;

(xxiv) the manner of advertising an application under section 73;

(xxv) the manner of making an application under section 77;

(xxvi) the classes of goods under section 79;

(xxvii) the conditions and restrictions under sub-section (2) of section 80;

(xxviii) determination of character of textile goods by sampling under section 82;

(xxix) the salaries and allowances payable to and the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other Members under sub-section (1) of section 88;

(xxx) the procedure for investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman and other members under sub-section (3) of section 89;

(xxxi) the salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board under sub-section (2) and the manner in which the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under sub-section (3) of section 90;

(xxxii) the form of making an appeal, the manner of verification and the fee payable under sub-section (3) of section 91;

(xxxiii) the form in which and the particulars to be included in the application to the Appellate Board under sub-section (1) of section 97;

(xxxiv) the manner of making an application for review under clause (c) of section 127;

(xxxv) the time within which an application is to be made to the Registrar for exercising his discretionary power under section 128;

(xxxvi) the manner of making an application and the fee payable therefor under sub-section (1) of section 131;

(xxxvii) the manner of making an application under sub-section (1) and the period for withdrawal of such application under sub-section (2) of section 133;

(xxxviii) the manner of authorising any person to act and the manner of registration as a trade mark agent under section 145;

(xxxix) the conditions for inspection of documents under sub-section (1) and the fee payable for obtaining a certified copy of any entry in the register under sub-section (2) of section 148;

(xl) the fees and surcharge payable for making applications and registration and other matters under section 150;

(xli) any other matter which is required to be or may be prescribed.

(3) The power to make rules conferred by this section shall include the power to give retrospective effect in respect of the matters referred to in clauses (xxix) and (xxxi) of sub-section (2) from a date not earlier than the date of commencement of this Act, but no retrospective effect shall be given to any such rule so as to prejudicially affect the interests of any person to whom sub-rule may be applicable.

(4) Every rule made by the Central Government under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

158. Amendments.—

The enactment specified in the Schedule shall be amended in the manner specified therein.

159. Repeal and savings.—

(1) The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) is hereby repealed.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), with respect to repeals, any notification, rule, order, requirement, registration, certificate, notice, decision, determination, direction, approval, authorisation, consent, application, request or thing made, issued, given or done under the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958) shall, if in force at the commencement of this Act, continue to be in force and have effect as if made, issued, given or done under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

(3) The provisions of this Act shall apply to any application for registration of a trade mark pending at the commencement of this Act and to any proceedings consequent thereon and to any registration granted in pursuance thereof.

(4) Subject to the provisions of section 100 and notwithstanding anything contained in any other provision of this Act, any legal proceeding pending in any court at the commencement of this Act may be continued in that court as if this Act had not been passed.

(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, where a particular use of a registered trade mark is not an infringement of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act, then, the continued use of that mark shall not be an infringement under this Act.

(6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the date of expiration of registration of a trade mark registered before the commencement of this Act shall be the date immediately after the period of seven years for which it was registered or renewed:

Provided that the registration of a defensive trade mark referred to in section 47 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958), shall cease to have effect on the date immediately after the expiry of five years of such commencement or after the expiry of the period for which it was registered or renewed, whichever is earlier.

THE SCHEDULE

(See section 158) Amendments

Year

Act No.

Short title

Amendment

1

2

3

4

1956

1

The Companies

Act, 1956

(1) In section 20, for sub-section (2), the following sub sections shall Act, 1956 be substituted, namely:-

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, a name which is identical with, or too nearly resembles,-

(i) the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, or

(ii) a registered trade mark, or a trade mark which is subject of an application for registration, of any other person under the Trade Marks Act, 1999.

May be deemed to be undesirable by the Central Government within the meaningof sub-section (1).

(3) The Central Government may, before deeming a name as undesirable under clause (ii) of sub section (2), consult and Registrar of Trade Marks.

(II) In section 22, in sub-section (1),

(i) for the portion beginning with “if, through” and ending with “the fist’ mentioned company” the following shall be substituted, namely:-

“If, through inadvertence or otherwise, a company on its first registration or on its registration by a new name, is registered by a name which,-

(i) in the opinion of the Central Government, is identical with, or too nearly resembles, the name by which a company in existence has been previously registered, whether under this Act or any previous companies law, the first mentioned company, or

(ii) on an application by a registered proprietor of a trade mark, is in the opinion of the Central Government identical with, or too nearly resembles, a registered trade mark of such proprietor under the Trade Marks Act, 1999 such company-

(ii) the following proviso shall be added, namely :-

“Provided that no application under clause (ii) made by a registered proprietor of a trade mark after five years of coming to notice of registration of the company shall be considered by the Central Government”.

Trade Marks (Amendment) Act, 2010

Section 1. Short title and commencement

TRADE MARKS (AMENDMENT) ACT, 20101

[No. 40 OF 2010]

[21st September, 2010]

An Act to amend the Trade Marks Act, 1999

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Sixty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows—

Prefatory Note—Statement of Objects and Reasons.

At present, a person desirous of obtaining registration of his trade mark in other countries has to make separate applications in different languages and pay different fees in the respective countries. There is no provision under the Trade Marks Act, 1999 (hereinafter referred to as the Trade Marks Act) to facilitate Indian nationals as well as foreign nationals to secure simultaneous protection of trade marks in other countries.

2. The Madrid Protocol, administered by the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organisation, a specialised agency of the United Nations, was adopted in 1989. The Madrid Protocol is a simple, facilitative and cost-effective system for international registration of trade marks. It enables the nationals of the Member countries of the Protocol to obtain protection of trade marks within the prescribed period of 18 months by filing a single application with one fee and in one language in their country of origin, which in turn is transmitted to the other designated countries through the International Bureau.

3. Accession to the Madrid Protocol entails amendments to the Trade Marks Act. For this purpose, it is proposed to suitably amend the Trade Marks Act and to incorporate therein a new Chapter IV-A containing special provisions relating to protection of international registration of trade marks under the Madrid Protocol. It is sought to empower the Registrar of Trade Marks to deal with international applications originating from India as well as those received from the International Bureau and maintain record of international registrations. Definitions of new terms are being given. It is further proposed to provide for the effect of international registration, duration and its renewal.

4. It is also proposed to remove the discretion of the Registrar to extend the time for filing notice of opposition of published applications and provide for a uniform time limit of four months in all cases. Further, with a view to simplify the law relating to transfer of ownership of trade marks by assignment or transmission and to bring the law generally in tune with international practice and modern business needs, Section 45 is proposed to be modified. It is also proposed to omit Chapter X of the Trade Marks Act dealing with special provisions for textile goods, as it has now become redundant.

5. The Bill seeks to achieve the above objects.

——————–

1. Received the assent of the President on September 21, 2010 and published in the Gazette of India, Extra., Part II, Section 1, dated 22nd September, 2010, pp. 1-4, No. 49

(1) This Act may be called the Trade Marks (Amendment) Act, 2010.

(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

Section 2. Amendment of Section 11

In Section 11 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 (47 of 1999) (hereinafter referred to as the principal Act), in the Explanation, for clause (a), the following clause shall be substituted, namely—

“(a) a registered trade mark or an application under Section 18 bearing an earlier date of filing or an international registration referred to in Section 36-E or convention application referred to in Section 154 which has a date of application earlier than that of the trade mark in question, taking account, where appropriate, of the priorities claimed in respect of the trade marks;”.

Section 3. Amendment of Section 21

In Section 21 of the principal Act, for sub-section (1), the following sub-section shall be substituted, namely—

“(1) Any person may, within four months from the date of the advertisement or re-advertisement of an application for registration, give notice in writing in the prescribed manner and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, to the Registrar, of opposition to the registration.”.

Section 4. Amendment of Section 23

In Section 23 of the principal Act, in sub-section (1), after the words “register the said trade mark”, the words “within eighteen months of the filing of the application” shall be inserted.

Section 5. Insertion of new Chapter IV-A

After Chapter IV of the principal Act, the following chapter shall be inserted, namely—

‘Chapter IV-A

SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO PROTECTION OF TRADE MARKS THROUGH INTERNATIONAL REGISTRATION UNDER THE MADRID PROTOCOL

36-A. Application of Act in case of international registration under Madrid Protocol.—

The provisions of this chapter shall apply to international applications and international registrations under the Madrid Protocol.

36-B. Definitions.

In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “application”, in relation to a Contracting State or a Contracting Organisation, means an application made by a person who is a citizen of, or is domiciled in, or has a real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in, that Contracting State or a State which is a member of that Contracting Organisation, as the case may be.

Explanation

For the purposes of this clause, “real and effective industrial or commercial establishment” means and includes any establishment where some bona fide industrial or commercial activity takes place and need not necessarily be the principal place of business;

(b) “basic application” means an application for the registration of a trade mark filed under Section 18 and which is used as a basis for applying for an international registration;

(c) “basic registration” means the registration of a trade mark under Section 23 and which is used as a basis for applying for an international registration;

(d) “common regulations” means the regulations concerning the implementation of the Madrid Protocol;

(e) “contracting organisation” means a Contracting Party that is an inter¬governmental organisation;

(f) “contracting party” means a Contracting State or Contracting Organisation party to the Madrid Protocol;

(g) “contracting state” means a country party to the Madrid Protocol;

(h) “international application” means an application for international registration or for extension of the protection resulting from an international registration to any Contracting Party made under the Madrid Protocol;

(i) “international bureau” means the International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organisation;

(j) “international registration” means the registration of a trade mark in the register of the International Bureau effected under the Madrid Protocol;

(k) “Madrid Agreement” means the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks adopted at Madrid on the 14th day of April, 1891, as subsequently revised and amended;

(l) “Madrid Protocol” means the Protocol relating to the Madrid Agreement concerning the International Registration of Marks adopted at Madrid on the 27th day of June, 1989, as amended from time to time.

36-C. Trade Marks Registry to deal with international applications.

Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (3) of Section 5, an international application shall be dealt with by the head office of the Trade Marks Registry or such branch office of the Registry, as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify.

36-D. International application originating from India.

(1) Where an application for the registration of a trade mark has been made under Section 18 or a trade mark has been registered under Section 23, the applicant or the registered proprietor may make an international application on the form prescribed by the Common Regulations for international registration of that trade mark.

(2) A person holding an international registration may make an international application on the form prescribed by the Common Regulations for extension of the protection resulting from such registration to any other Contracting Party.

(3) An international application under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall designate the Contracting Parties where the protection resulting from the international registration is required.

(4) The Registrar shall certify in the prescribed manner that the particulars appearing in the international application corresponding to the particulars appearing, at the time of the certification, in the application under Section 18 or the registration under Section 23, and shall indicate the date and number of that application or the date and number of that registration as well as the date and number of the application from which that registration resulted, as the case may be, and shall within the prescribed period, forward the international application to the International Bureau for Registration, also indicating the date of the international application.

(5) Where at any time before the expiry of a period of five years of an international registration, whether such registration has been transferred to another person or not, the application under Section 18 or the registration under Section 23, as the case may be, has been withdrawn or cancelled or has expired or has been finally refused in respect of all or some of the goods or services listed in the international registration, the protection resulting from such international registration shall cease to have effect:

Provided that where an appeal is made against the decision of registration and an action requesting for withdrawal of application or an opposition to the application has been initiated before the expiry of the period of five years of an international registration, any final decision resulting into withdrawal, cancellation, expiration or refusal shall be deemed to have taken place before the expiry of five years of the international registration.

(6) The Registrar shall, during the period of five years beginning with the date of international registration, transmit to the International Bureau every information referred to in sub-section (5).

(7) The Registrar shall notify the International Bureau the cancellation to be effected to an international registration keeping in view the current status of the basic application or the basic registration, as the case may be.

36-E. International registrations where India has been designated.

(1) The Registrar shall, after receipt of an advice from the International Bureau about any international registration where India has been designated, keep a record of the particulars of that international registration in the prescribed manner.

(2) Where, after recording the particulars of any international registration referred to in sub-section (1), the Registrar is satisfied that in the circumstances of the case the protection of trade mark in India should not be granted or such protection should be granted subject to conditions or limitations or to conditions additional to or different from the conditions or limitations subject to which the international registration has been accepted, he may, after hearing the applicant if he so desires, refuse grant of protection and inform the International Bureau in the prescribed manner within eighteen months from the date on which the advice referred to in sub-section (1) was received.

(3) Where the Registrar finds nothing in the particulars of an international registration to refuse grant of protection under sub-section (2), he shall within the prescribed period cause such international registration to be advertised in the prescribed manner.

(4) The provisions of Sections 9 to 21 (both inclusive), 63 and 74 shall apply mutatis mutandis in relation to an international registration as if such international registration was an application for registration of a trade mark under Section 18.

(5) When the protection of an international registration has not been opposed and the time for notice of oppositions has expired, the Registrar shall within a period of eighteen months of the receipt of advice under sub-section (1) notify the International Bureau its acceptance of extension of protection of the trade mark under such international registration and, in case the Registrar fails to notify the International Bureau, it shall be deemed that the protection has been extended to the trade mark.

(6) Where a registered proprietor of a trade mark makes an international registration of that trade mark and designates India, the international registration from the date of the registration shall be deemed to replace the registration held in India without prejudice to any right acquired under such previously held registration and the Registrar shall, upon request by the applicant, make necessary entry in the register referred to in sub-section (1) of Section 6.

(7) A holder of international registration of a trade mark who designates India and who has not been extended protection in India shall have the same remedy which is available to any person making an application for the registration of a trade mark under Section 18 and which has not resulted in registration under Section 23.

(8) Where at any time before the expiry of a period of five years of an international registration, whether such registration has been transferred to another person or not, the related basic application or, as the case may be, the basic regitration in a Contracting Party other than India has been withdrawn or cancelled or has expired or has been finally refused in respect of all or some of the goods or services listed in the international registration, the protection resulting from such international registration in India shall cease to have effect.

36-F. Effects of international registration.

(1) From the date of the international registration of a trade mark where India has been designated or the date of the recording in the register of the International Bureau about the extension of the protection resulting from an international registration of a trade mark to India, the protection of the trade mark in India shall be the same as if the trade mark had been registered in India.

(2) The indication of classes of goods and services given by the applicant shall not bind the Registrar with regard to the determination of the scope of the protection of the trade mark.

36-G. Duration and renewal of international registration.

(1) The international registration of a trade mark at the International Bureau shall be for a period of ten years and may be renewed for a period of ten years from the expiry of the preceding priod.

(2) Subject to payment of a surcharge prescribed by the rules, a grace period of six months shall be allowed for renewal of the international registration.’.

Section 6. Substitution of new section for Section 45

For Section 45 of the principal Act, the following section shall be substituted, namely—

“45. Registration of assignments and transmissions.—(1) Where a person becomes entitled by assignment or transmission to a registered trade mark, he shall apply in the prescribed manner to the Registrar to register his title, and the Registrar shall, on receipt of the application, register him as the proprietor of the trade mark in respect of the goods or services in respect of which the assignment or transmission has effect, and shall cause particulars of such.assignment or transmission to be entered on the register.

(2) The Registrar may require the applicant to furnish evidence or further evidence in proof of title only where there is a reasonable doubt about the veracity of any statement or any document furnished.

(3) Where the validity of an assignment or transmission is in dispute between the parties, the Registrar may refuse to register the assignment or transmission until the rights of the parties have been determined by a competent court and in all other cases the Registrar shall dispose of the application within the prescribed period.

(4) Until an application under sub-section (1) has been filed, the assignment or transmission shall be ineffective against a person acquiring a conflicting interest in or under the registered trade mark without the knowledge of assignment or transmission.”

Section 7. Omission of Chapter X

Chapter X of the principal Act shall be omitted.

Section 8. Amendment of Section 150

In Section 150 of the principal Act, in sub-section (1), for the word “applications”, the words “applications, international applications” shall be substituted.

Section 9. Amendment of Section 157

In Section 157 of the principal Act, in sub-section (2),—

(a) for clause (vii), the following clause shall be substituted, namely—

“(vii) the manner of giving a notice of opposition and the fee payable for such notice under sub-section (1) and sending counter-statement under subsection (2) and submission of evidence and the time therefor under sub-section (4) of Section 21;”;

(b) after clause (ix), the following clauses shall be inserted, namely—

“(ix-a) the time within which the international application is to be forwarded to the International Bureau and the manner of certifying the particulars by the Registrar under sub-section (4) of Section 36-D;

(ix-b) the manner of keeping a record of particulars of an international registration under sub-section (1) of Section 36-E;

(ix-c) the manner of informing the International Bureau under sub-section

(2) of Section 36-E;

(ix-d) the manner of advertising the international registration and the time within which the international registration shall be advertised under sub-section

(3) of Section 36-E;”

(c) after clause (xiii), the following clause shall be inserted, namely—

“(xiii-a) the period within which the Registrar shall dispose of an application under sub-section (3) of Section 45;”

(d) clauses (xxvi), (xxvii) and (xxviii) shall be omitted.

Section 10. Power of Central Government to remove difficulties

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 156 of the principal Act, if any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to it to be necessary for removing such difficulty:

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of five years from the commencement of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Information Technology Act, 2000

Chapter I – Preliminary

1. Short title, extent, commencement and application. –

An Act to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic date interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as “electronic commerce”, which involve the use of alternative to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the India Evidence Act, 1872, the Banker’s Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto;

WHEREAS the General Assembly of the United Nations by resolution A/RES/ 51/162, date 30th January 1997 has adopted the Model Law on Electronic Commerce adopted by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law;

AND WHREAS the said resolution recommends, inter alia, that all States give favourable consideration to the said Model Law when they enact or revise their laws, in view of the need for uniformity of the law applicable to alternatives to paper based methods of communication and storage of information;

AND WHEREAS it is considered necessary to give effect to the said resolution and to promote efficient delivery of Government services by means of reliable electronic records;

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-first Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

(1) This Act may be called the Information Technology Act, 2000.

(2) It shall extend to the whole of India and, save as otherwise provided in this Act, it applies also to any or contravention thereunder committed outside India by any person.

(3) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act and any reference in any such provision to the commencement of this Act shall be construed as a reference to the commencement of that provision.

(4) Nothing in this Act shall apply to-

(a) a negotiable instrument as defined in section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 (26 of 1881);

(b) a power-of-attorney as defined in section 1A of the Powers-of-Attorney Act, 1882 (7 of 1882);

(c) a trust as defined in section 3 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 (2 of 1882);

(d) a will as defined in clause (h) of section (2) of the Indian Succession Act, 1925 (39 of 1925), including any testamentary disposition by whatever name called;

(e) any contract for the sale or conveyance of immovable property or any interest in such property;

(f) any such class of documents or transactions as may be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette.

2. Definitions. –

(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (a) “access”, with its grammatical variation and cognate expressions, means gaining entry into, instructing or communicating with the logical, arithmetical or memory function resources of a computer, computer system or computer network;

(b) “addressee” means a person who is intended by the originator to receive the electronic record but does not include any intermediary;

(c) “adjudicating officer” means an adjudicating officer appointed under sub-section (1) of section 46;

“affixing digital signature”, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions means adoption of any methodology or procedure by a person for the purpose of authenticating an electronic record by means of digital signature;

“appropriate Government ” means as respects any matter- enumerated in List II of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution;

relating to any State law enacted under List III of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution,

the State Government and in any other case, the Central Government;

“asymmetric crypto system” means a system of a secure key pair consisting of a private key for creating a digital signature and a public key to verify the digital signature;

“Certifying Authority” means a person who has been granted a licence to issue a Digital Signature Certificate under section 24;

“certification practice statement” issued by a Certifying Authority to specify the practices that the Certifying Authority employs in issuing Digital Signature Certificates;

“computer” means electronic, magnetic, optical or other high-speed date processing device or system which performs logical, arithmetic and memory functions by manipulations of electronic, magnetic or optical impulses, and includes all input, output, processing, storage, computer software or communication facilities which are connected or relates to the computer in a computer system or computer network;

“computer network” means the inter-connection of one or more computers through-

(i) the use of satellite, microwave, terrestrial lime or other communication media; and

(ii) terminals or a complex consisting of two or more interconnected computers whether or not the interconnection is continuously maintained;

“computer resources” means computer, computer system, computer network, data, computer database or software;

“computer system” means a device or collection of devices, including input and output support devices and excluding calculators which are not programmable and capable being used in conjunction with external files which contain computer programmes, electronic instructions, input data and output data that performs logic, arithmetic, data storage and retrieval, communication control and other functions;

“Controller” means the Controller of Certifying Authorities appointed under sub-section (1) of section 17’

“Cyber Appellate Tribunal” means the cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of section 48;

“data” means a representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts or instruction which are being prepared or have been prepared in a formalised manner, and is intended to be processed, is being processed or has been processed in a computer system or computer network, and may be in any form (including computer printouts magnetic or optical storage media, punched cards, punched tapes) or stored internally in the memory of the computer.

“digital signature” means authentication of any electronic record by a subscriber by means of an electronic method or procedure in accordance with the provisions of section 3;

“Digital Signature Certificate ” means a Digital Signature Certificate issued under sub-section (4) of section 35;

“electronic from”, with reference to information. Means, any information generated, sent, received or stored in media, magnetic, optical, computer memory, micro film, computer generated micro fiche or similar device;

“Electronic Gazette” means Official Gazette published in the electronic form;”electronic record” means date, record or date generated, image or sound stored, received or sent in an electronic form or micro film or computer generated micro fiche;

“function”, in relation to a computer, includes logic, control, arithmetical process, deletion, storage and retrieval and retrieval and communication or telecommunication from or within a computer;

“information’ includes data, taxt, images, sound, voice, codes, computer programmes, software and databases or micro film or computer generated micro fiche;

“intermediary” with respect to any particular electronic message, means any person who on behalf of another person receives, stores or transmits that message or provides any service with respect to that message;

“key pair”, in an asymmetric crypto system, means a private key and its mathematically related public key., which are so related that the public key can verify a digital signature created by the private key;

“law” includes any Act of Parliament or of a State Legislature, Ordinances promulgated by the President under article 240, Bills enacted as President’s Act under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) of article 375 of the Constitution and includes rules, regulations, bye-laws and order issued or made thereunder;

“licence” means a licence granted to a Certifying Authority under section 24;

(za) “originator” means a licence granted to a Certifying Aauthority under section 24;

(zb) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under the Act;

(zc) “private key” means the key of a key pair used to create a digital signature;

(zd) “public key” means the key of a key pair used to verify a digital

signature and listed in the Digital Signature Certificate;

(ze) “secure system” means computer hardware, software and procedure that-

(a) are reasonably secure from unauthorised access and misuses;

(b) provide a reasonable level of reliability and correct operation;

(c) are reasonably suited to performing the intended functions; and

(d) adhere to generally accepted security procedures;

(zf) “security procedure” means the security procedure prescribed under section 16 by the Central Government;

(zg) “subscriber” means a person in whose name the Digital Signature Certificate is issued;

(zh) “verify”, in relation to a digital signature, electronic record or public key, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means to determine whether- (a) the initial electronic record was affixed with the digital signature by the sue of private key corresponding to the public key of the subscriber;

(b) the initial electronic record is retained intact or has been altered since such electronic record was so affixed with the digital signature.

(2) Any reference in this Act to any enactment or any provision thereof shall, in relation to an area in which such enactment or such provision is not in force, be construed as a reference to the corresponding law or the relevant provision of the corresponding law, if any, in force in that area.

Chapter II Digital Signature

3. Authentication of electronic records. –

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, any subscriber may authenticate an electronic record by affixing his digital signature.

(2) The authentication of the electronic record shall be effected by the use of asymmetric crypto system and hash function which envelop and transform the initial electronic record into another electronic record.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-section, “hash function” means an algorithm mapping or translation of one sequence of bits into another, generally smaller, set known as “hash result” such that an electronic record yields the same hash result every time the algorithm is executed with the same electronic record as its input making it computationally infeasible-

(a) to derive or reconstruct the original electronic record from the hash result produced by the algorithm;

(b) that two electronic records can produce the same hash result using algorithm.

(3) Any person by the use of a public key of the subscriber can verify the electronic record.

(4) The private key and the public key are unique to the subscriber and constitute a functioning key pair.

Chapter III – Electronic Governance

4. Legal recognition of electronic records –

Where any law provides that information or any other matter shall be in writing or in the typewritten or printed form, then, notwithstanding anything contained in such law, such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such information or matter is-

(a) rendered or made available in an electronic form; and

(b) accessible so as to be usable for a subsequent reference.

5. Legal recognition of digital signatures. –

Where any lay provides that information or any other matter shall be authenticated by affixing the signature or any document shall be signed or bear the signature of any person, then, notwithstanding anything contained in such law, such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such information or matter is authenticated by means of digital signature affixed in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, “signed”, with its

grammatical variations and cognate expressions, shall, with reference to a person, means affixing of his hand written signature or any mark on any document and the expression “signature” shall be construed accordingly.

6. Use of electronic records and digital signatures in Government and its agencies. – (1) Where any law provides for-

(a) the filing of any form, application or any other document with any office authority, body for agency owned or controlled by the appropriate Government in a particular manner;

(b) the issue or grant of any licence, permit. Sanction or approval by whatever name called in a particular manner;

(c) the receipt or payment of money in a particular manner, the, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such filing, issue, grant, receipt or payment, as the case be, is effected by means of such electronic form as may be prescribed by the appropriate Government.

(2) The appropriate Government may, for the purposes of sub-section (1), by rules, prescribe-

(a) the manner and format in which such electronic records shall be filed, created or issued;

(b) the manner or method of payment of any fee or charges for filing, creation or issue any electronic record clause (a).

7. Retention of electronic records.-

(1) Where any law provides that documents, records or information shall be retained for any specific period, the, that requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such documents, records or information are retained in the electronic form, if-

(a) the manner and format therein remains accessible so as to be usable for a subsequent reference;

(b) the electronic record is retained in the format in which it was originally generated, sent or received or in a format which can be demonstrated to represent accurately the information originally generated, sent or received;

(c) the details which will facilitate the identification of the origin,

destination, date and time of dispatch or receipt of such electronic record:

Provided that this clause does not apply to any information which is automatically generated solely for the purpose of enabling a record to be dispatched or received.

(2) Nothing in this section shall apply to any law that expressly provides for the retention of documents, records or information in the form of electronic records.

8. Publication of rule, regulation, etc., in Electronic Gazette.-

Where any law provides that any rule, regulation, order, bye-law, notification or any6 other matte shall be published in the Official Gazette, then, such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such rule, regulation, order bye-law, notification or any other matter is published in the Official Gazette or Electronic Gazette:

Provided that where any rule, regulation, order, by-law, notification or any other matter is published in the Official Gazette or Electronic Gazette, the date of publication shall be deemed to be the date of the Gazette which was first published in any form.

9. Section 6, 7 and 8 not to confer right to insist document should be accepted in electronic form.-

Nothing contained in section 6, 7 and 8 shall be confer a right upon any person to insist that any Ministry or Department of the Central Government or the State Government or any authority or body established by or under any law or controlled or funded by the Central or State Government should accept, issue, create, retain and preserve any document in the form of electronic records or effect any monetary transaction in the electronic form.

10. Power to make rules by Central Government in respect of digital signature.-

The Central Government may, for the purposes of this Act, by rules, prescribe-

(a) the type of digital signature;

(b) the manner and format in which the digital signature shall be affixed;

(c) the manner or procedure which facilitates identification of the person

affixing the digital signature;

(d) control processes and procedures to ensure adequate integrity, security and confidentiality of electronic records or payments; and

(e) any other matter which is necessary to give legal effect to digital signatures.

Chapter IV – Attribution, Acknowledgement and Despatch of Electronic records

11. Attribution of electronic records.-

An electronic record shall be attributed to the originator,-

(a) if it was sent by the originator himself;

(b) by a person who had the authority to act on behalf of the originator in respect of that electronic record; or

(c) by an information system programmed by or on behalf of the originator to operate automatically.

12. Acknowledge of receipt.-

(1) Where the originator has not agreed with the addressee that the acknowledgement of receipt of electronic record be given in a particular form or by a particular method, an acknowledgement may be given by-

(a) any communication by the addressee, automated or otherwise; or

(b) any conduct of the addressee, sufficient to indicate to the originator that the electronic record has been received.

Where the originator has stipulated that the electronic record shall be binding only on receipt of an acknowledgement of such electronic record by him, then, unless acknowledgement has been so received, the electronic record shall be deemed to have been never sent by the originator.

Where the originator has not stipulated that the electronic record shall be binding only on receipt of such acknowledgment, and the acknowledgement has not been received by the originator within the time specified or agreed or, if no time has been specified or agreed to within a reasonable time, then, the originator may give notice to the addressee stating that no acknowledgement has been received by him and specifying a reasonable time by which he acknowledgement must be received by him and if no acknowledgement is received within the aforesaid time limit he may after giving notice to the addressee, treat the electronic record as tough it has never been sent.

13. Time and place of desptach and receipt of electronic record. –

(1) Save as otherwise agreed to between the originator and the addressee, the despatch of an electronic record occurs when it enters a computer resources outside the control of the originator.;

Save as otherwise agreed between the originator and the addressee, the time of receipt of an electronic record shall be determined as follows, namely:- the addressee has designated a computer resource for the purpose of receiving electronic record,- receipt occurs at the time when the electronic record enters the designated computer resources; or

if the electronic record is spent to a computer resources of the addressee that is not the designated computer resource, receipt occurs at the time when the electronic record is retrieved by the addressee;

if the addressee has not designated a computer resource along with specified timings, if any, receipt occurs when the electronic record enters the computer resource of the addressee.

Save as otherwise agreed to between the originator and the addressee, an electronic record is deemed to be received at the place where the addressee has his place of business.

The provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply notwithstanding that the place where the computer resource is located may be different from the place where the electronic record is deemed to have been received under sub-section (3).

For the purpose of this section.- if the originator or the addressee has more than one place of business, the principal place of business, shall be the place of business;

if the originator or the addressee does not have a place of business, his usual place of residence shall be deemed to be the place of business;

“usual place of residence “, in relation to a body corporate, means the place where it is registered.

Chapter V – Secure Electronic records and secure digital signatures

14. Secure electronic record.-

Where any security procedure has been applied to an electronic record at a specific point of time, then such record shall be deemed to be a secure electronic record from such point of time to the time of verification.

15. Secure digital signature.-

If, by application of a security procedure agreed to by the parties concerned, it can be verified that a digital signature, at the time it was affixed, was –

(a) unique to the subscriber affixing it;

(b) capable of identifying such subscriber;

(c) created in a manner or using a means under the exclusive control of the subscriber and is linked to the electronic record to which related in such a manner that if the electronic record was altered the digital signature would be invalidated, then such digital signature shall be deemed to be a secure digital signature.

16. Security procedure.-

The Central Government shall, for the purpose of this Act, prescribe the security procedure having regard to commercial circumstances prevailing at the time when the procedure was used, including-

(a) the nature of the transaction;

(b) the level of sophistication of the parties with reference to their technological capacity;

(c) the volume of similar transactions engaged in by other parties;

(d) the availability of alternatives offered to but rejected by any party;

(e) the cost of alternative procedures; and

(f) the procedures in general use for similar types of transaction or communications.

Chapter VI – Regulation of Certifying Authorities

17. Appointment of Controller and other officers. –

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint a Controller of Certifying Authorities for the purposes of this Act and may, also by the same or subsequent notification, appoint such number of Deputy Controllers and Assistant Controllers as it deems fit.

(2) The Controller shall discharge his functions under this Act subject to the general control and directions of the Central Government.

(3) The Deputy Controllers and Assistant Controllers shall perform functions assigned to them by the Controller under the general superintendence and control of the Controller.

(4) The qualifications, experience and terms and conditions of service of Controller, Deputy Controllers and Assistant Controller shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(5) The Head Office and Branch Officer of the officer of the Controller shall be at such places as the Central Government may specify, and these may be established at such places as the Central Government may think fit.

(6) There shall be a seal of the Office of the Controller.

18. Functions of Controller. –

The Controller may perform all or any of the following function, namely:-

(a) exercising supervision over the activities of Certifying Authorities;

(b) certifying public keys of the Certifying Authorities;

(c) laying down the standards to be maintained by Certifying Authorities;

(d) specifying the qualifications and experience which employees of the Certifying Authorities should possess;

(e) specifying the conditions subject to which the Certifying Authority shall conduct their business;

(f) specifying the contents of written, printed or visual materials and advertisements that may be distributed or used in respect of a Digital Signature Certificate and the public key;

(g) specifying the form and content of a Digital Signature Certificate and the key;

(h) specifying the form the manner in which accounts shall be maintained by the Certifying Authorities;

(i) specifying the terms and conditions subject to which auditors may be appointed and the remuneration to be paid to them;

(j) facilitating the establishment of any electronic system by a Certifying Authority either solely or jointly with other Certifying Authorities and regulation of such system;

(k) specifying the manner in which the Certifying Authorities shall conduct their dealings with the subscribers;

(l) resolving any conflict of interests between the Certifying Authorities and the subscribers;

(m) laying down the duties of the Certifying Authorities;

(n) maintaining a data-base containing the disclosure record of ever Certifying Authority containing such particulars as may be specified by regulations which shall be accessible to public.

19. Recognition of foreign Certifying Authorities. –

(1) Subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be specified, by regulations, the Controller may, with the previous approval of the Central Government, and by notification in the Official Gazette, recognise any Certifying Authority as a Certifying Authority for the purposes of this Act.

(2) Where any Certifying Authority is recognised under sub-section (1), the Digital Signature Certificate issued by such Certifying Authority shall be valid for the purposes of this Act.

(3) The Controller may if he is satisfied that any Certifying Authority has contravened any of the conditions and restrictions subject to which it was granted recognition under sub-section (1), he may, for reasons to be recorded in writing, by notification in the Official Gazette, revoke such recognition.

20. Controller to act as repository. –

(1) The Controller shall be the repository of all Digital Signature Certificates issued under this Act.

(2) The Counter shall- (a) make use of hardware, software and procedures that are secure from intrusion and misuse;

(b) observe such other standards as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

To ensure that the secrecy and security of the digital signatures are assured.

(3) The Controller shall maintain a computerised data-base of all public keys in such a manner that such database and the public keys are available to any member of the public.

21. Licence tissue Digital Signature Certificates. –

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), any person may make an application to the Controller for a licence to issue Digital Signature Certificates.

(2) No licence shall be issued under sub-section (1), unless the applicant fulfills such requirements with respect to qualification, expertise, manpower, financial resources and other infrastructure facilities, which are necessary to issue Digital Signature Certificates as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(3) A licence granted under this section shall- (a) be valid for such period as may be prescribed by the Central Government;

(b) not be transferable or heritable;

(c) be subject to such terms and conditions as may be specified by the regulations.

22. Application for licence. –

(1) Every application for issue of a licence shall be in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) Every application for issue of a licence shall be accompanied by- (a) a certification practice statement;

(b) a statement including the procedures with respect to identification of the applicant;

(c) payment of such fees, not exceeding twenty-five thousand rupees as may be prescribed by the Central Government;

(d) such other documents, as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

23. Renewal of licence –

An application for renewal of a licence shall be- (a) in such form;

(b) accompanied by such fees, not exceeding five thousand rupees, as may be prescribed by the Central Government and shall be made not less than forty-five days before the date of expiry of the period of validity of the licence.

24. Procedure for grant or rejection of licence.-

The Controller may, on receipt of an application under sub-section (1) of section 21, after considering the documents accompanying the application and such other factor, as he deems fit, grant the licence or reject the application:

Provided that no application shall be rejected under this section unless the applicant has been given a reasonable opportunity of presenting his case.

25. Suspension of licence. –

(1) The Controller may, if he is satisfied after making such inquiry, as he may think fit, that a Certifying Authority has-

(a) made a statement in, or in relation to, the application for the issue or renewal of the licence, which is incorrect or false in material particulars;

(b) failed to comply with the terms and conditions subject to which the licence was granted;

(c) failed to maintain the standards specified under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 20;

(d) contravened any provisions of this Act, rule, regulations or order made revoke the licence;

Provided that no licence shall be revoked unless the Certifying Authority has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed revocation.

(2) The Controller may, if he has reasonable cause to believe that there is any ground for revoking a licence pending the completion of any enquiry ordered by him:

Provided that no licence shall be suspended for a period exceeding ten days unless the Certifying Authority has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed suspension:

26. Notice of suspension revocation of licence.-

(1) Where the licence of the Certifying Authority is suspended or revoked, the Controller shall publish notice of such suspension or revocation, as the case may be, in the database maintained by him.

(2) Where one or more repositories are specified, the Controller shall publish notices of such repositories:

Provided that the database containing the notice of such suspension or revocation, as the case may be, shall be made available through a web site which shall be accessible round the clock:

Provided further that the Controller may, if he considers necessary, publicise the contents of database in such electronic or other media, as the may consider appropriate.

27. Power to delegate –

The Controller may, in writing, authorise the Deputy Controller, Assistant Controller or any officer to Controller may, in writing, authorise the Deputy Controller, Assistant Controller or any officer to exercise any of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder.

28. Power to investigate contraventions. –

(1) The Controller or any officer authrised by him in this behalf shall take up for investigation any contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder.

(2) The controller or any officer authorised by him in this behalf shall exercise the like powers which are conferred on Income-tax authorities under Chapter XIII of the Income-tax Act, 1961, (43 of 1961), and shall exercise such powers, subject to such limitations laid down under that Act.

29. Access to computers and data. –

(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 68, the Controller or any person authorised by him shall, if he has reasonable cause to suspect that any contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder their has been committed, have access to any computer system, any apparatus, data or any other material connected with such system, for the purpose of searching or causing a search to be made for obtaining any information or data contained in or data contained in or available to such computer system.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section (1), the Controller or any person authorised by him may, by order, direct any person incharge of, or otherwise concerned with the operation of, the computer system, data apparatus or material, to provide him with such reasonable technical and other assistance as he may consider necessary.

30. Certifying Authority to follow certain procedures.-

Every Certifying Authority shall,-

(a) make use of hardware, software, and procedures that the secure from intrusion and misuse;

(b) provide a reasonable level of reliability in its services which are reasonably suited to the performance of intended functions;

(c) adhere to security procedures to ensure that the secrecy and privacy of the digital signatures are assured; and

(d) observe such other standards as may be specified by regulations.

31. Certifying Authority to ensure compliance of the Act, etc.-

Every Certifying Authority shall ensure that every person employed or otherwise engaged by it complies in the course of his employment or engagement, with the provisions of this Act, rules regulations or orders made thereunder.

32. Display of licence.-

Every Certifying Authority shall display its licence at a conspicuous place of the premises in which it carries on its business.

33. Surrender of licence. –

(1) Every Certifying Authority whose licence is suspended or revoked shall immediately after such suspension or revocation, surrender the licence to the Controller.

(2) Where any certifying authority fails to surrender a licence under sub-section (1), the person in whose favour a licence is issued, shall be guilty of an offences and shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend upto six months or a fire which may extend upto ten thousand rupees or with both

34. Disclosure. –

(1) Every Certifying Authority shall disclose in the manner specified by regulations.-

(a) Its Digital Signature Certificate which contains the public key corresponding to the private key used by that Certifying Authority to digitally sign another Digital Signature Certificate;

(b) and certification practice statement relevant thereto;

(c) notice of the revocation or suspension of its Certifying Authority certificate if any; and

(d) any other fact that materially and adversely affects either the reliability of a Digital Signature Certificate, which that Authority has issued, or the Authority’s ability to perform its services.

(2) Where in the opinion of the Certifying Authority any event has occurred or any situation has arisen which may materially and adversely affect the integrity of its computer system or the conditions subject to which a Digital Signature Certificate was granted, then, the Certifying Authority shall-

(a) use reasonable efforts to notify any person who is likely to be affected by that occurrence: or

(b) act in accordance with the procedure specified in its certification practice statement to deal with such event or situation.

Chapter VII – Digital Signature Certificates

35. Certifying authority to issue Digital Signature Certificate. –

(1) Any person may make an application to the Certifying Authority for the issue of a Digital Signature Certificate in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2) Every such application shall be accompanied by such fee not exceeding twenty-five thousand rupees as may be prescribed by the Central Government, to be paid to the Certifying Authority:

Provided that while prescribing fees under sub-section (2) different fees may be prescribed for different classes of applicants.

Every such application shall be accompanied by a certification practice statement or where there is no such statement, a statement containing such particulars, as may be specified by regulations.

On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the Certifying Authority may, after consideration of the certification practice statement or the other statement under sub-section (3) and after making such enquiries as it may deem fit, grant the Digital Signature Certificate or for reasons to be recorded in writing, reject the application:

Provided that no Digital Signature Certificate shall be granted unless the Certifying Authority is satisfied that-

the applicant holds the private key corresponding to the public key to be listed in the Digital Signature Certificate;

the applicant holds a private key, which is capable of creating a digital signature;

the public key to be listed in the certificate can be used to verify a digital signature affixed by the private key held by the applicant:

Provided further that no application shall be rejected unless the applicant has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the proposed rejection.

36. Representations upon issuance Digital Signature Certificate. –

A Certifying Authority while issuing a Digital Signature Certificate shall certify that- it has complied with the provisions of this Act and the rules and regulations made there under;

it has published the Digital Signature Certificate or otherwise made it available to such person relying on it and the subscriber has accepted it;

the subscriber holds the private key corresponding to the public key, listed in the Digital Signature Certificate;

the subscriber’s public key and private key constitute a functioning key pair;

the information contained in the Digital Signature Certificate is accurate; and

it has no knowledge of any6 material fact, which if it had been included in the Digital Signature Certificate would adversely affect the reliability of the representations in clauses (a) to (d).

37. Suspension of Digital Signature Certificate. –

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the Certifying Authority which has issued a Digital Signature Certificate may suspend such Digital Signature Certificate.- on receipt of a request to that effect from-

the subscriber listed in the Digital signature Certificate; or

any person duly authorised to act on behalf of that subscriber;

if it is of opinion that the Digital Signature Certificate should be suspended in public interest.

A Digital Signature Certificate shall not be suspended for a period exceeding fifteen days unless the subscriber has been given an opportunity of being heard in the matter.

On suspension of a Digital Signature Certificate under this section, the Certifying Authority shall communicate the same to the subscriber.’

38. Revocation of Digital Signature Certificate. –

(1) A Certifying Authority may revoke a Digital Signature Certificate issued by it-

where the subscriber or any other person authorised by him makes a request to that effect; or

upon the death of the subscriber; or

upon the dissolution of the firm or winding up of the company where the subscriber is a firm or a company.

Subject to the provisions of sub-section (3) and without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), a Certifying Authority may revoke a Digital Signature Certificate which has been issued by it at any time, if it is of opinion that-

a material fact represent in the Digital Signature Certificate is false or had been concealed;

a requirement for issuance of the Digital Signature Certificate was not satisfied;

the Certifying Authority’s private key of security system was compromised in a manner materially affecting the Digital Signature Certificate’s reliability;

the subscriber has been declared insolvent or dead or where a subscriber is a firm or a company, which has been dissolved, wound-up or otherwise ceased to exist.

A Digital Signature Certificate shall not be revoked unless the subscriber has been given an opportunity of being heard in the matter.

On revocation of a Digital Signature Certificate under this section, the Certifying Authority shall communicate the same to the subscriber.

39. Notice of suspension or revocation. –

(1) Where a Digital Signature Certificate is suspended or revoked under section 37 or section 38, the Certifying Authority shall publish a notice of such suspension or revocation, as the case may be, in the repository specified in the Digital Signature Certificate for publication of such notice.

Where one or more repositories are specified the Certifying Authority shall publish notices of such suspension or revocation, as the case may be, in all such repositories.

Chapter VIII – Duties of Subscribers

40. Generating key pair.-

Where any Digital Signature Certificate the public key of which corresponds to the private key of that subscriber which is to be listed in the Digital Signature Certificate has been accepted by a subscriber, the, the subscriber shall generate the key pair by applying the security procedure.

41. Acceptance of Digital Signature Certificate. –

(1) A subscriber shall deemed to have accepted a Digital Signature Certificate is the publishes or authorises the publication of a Digital Signature Certificate- to one or more person;

in a repository; or otherwise demonstrates his approval of the Digital Signature Certificate in any manner.

By accepting a Digital Signature Certificate the subscriber certifies to all who reasonable rely on the information contained in the Digital Signature Certificate that—

the subscriber holds the private key corresponding to the public key listed in the Digital Signature Certificate and is entitled to h old the same;

all representations made by the subscriber to the Certifying Authority and all material relevant to the information contained in the Digital Signature Certificate are true;

all information in the Digital Signature Certificate that is writing the knowledge of the subscriber is true.

42. Control of private key. –

(1) Every subscriber shall exercise reasonable care to retain control of the private key corresponding to the public key listed in his Digital Signature Certificate and take all steps to prevent its disclosure to a person not authorised to affix the digital signature of the subscriber.

If the private key corresponding to the public key listed in the Digital Signature Certificate has been compromised, then, the subscriber shall communicate the same without any delay to the Certifying Authority in such manner as may be specified by the regulations.

Explanation:- For removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the subscriber shall be liable till he has informed the certifying Authority that the private key has been compromised.

Chapter IX – Penalties and Adjudication

43. Penalty for damage to computer, computer system, etc.-

If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is in charge of a computer, computer system or computer network,- accesses or secures access to such computer, computer system or computer network downloads, copies or extracts any data, computer data base information from such computer, computer system or computer network including information or data held or stored in any removable storage medium.

Introduces or causes to be introduced any computer contaminant or computer virus into any computer, computer system or computer network;

damages or causes to be damaged and computer, computer system or computer network, data, computer database or any other programmes residing in such computer, computer system or computer network;

disrupts or causes disruption of any computer, computer system or computer network;

denies or causes the denial of access to any person authorised to access any computer, computer system or computer network by any means;

provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access to a computer, computer system or computer network in contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder;

charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer, computer system or compute network he shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation not exceeding one crore rupees to the person so affected.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section.- (i) “computer contaminant” means any set of computer instructions that are designed –

(a) to modify, destroy, record, transmit date or programme residing within a computer, computer system or computer network; or

(b) by any means to usurp the normal operation of the computer, compute system, or computer network;

(ii) “computer database” means a representation of information,

knowledge, facts, concepts or instructions in text, image, audio, video that are being prepared or have been prepare in a formalised manner or have been produced by a computer, computer system or computer network and are intended for use in a computer, computer system or computer network;

(iii) “computer virus” means any computer instruction, information, data or programme that destroys, damages, degrades adversely affects the performance of a computer resources or attaches itself to another itself to another computer resources and operates when a programme, date or instruction is executed or some other even takes place in that computer resource;

(iv) “damage” means to destroy, alter, delete, add, modify or re-arrange any computer resource by any means.

44. Penalty for failure to furnish information, return, etc.-

If any person who is required under this Act or any rules or regulations made thereunder to- (a) furnish any document, return or report to the Controller or the Certifying Authority fails to furnish the same, he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding one lakh and fifty thousand rupees for each such failure;

(b) file any return or furnish any information, books or other documents within the time specified therefor in the regulations fails to file return or furnish the same within the time specified therefor in the regulations, he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure continues;

(c) maintain books of account or records fails to maintain the same, he shall be liable to a penalty no exceeding ten thousand rupees for every day during which the failure continues.

45. Residuary penalty.-

Whoever contravenes any rules or regulations made under this Act, for the contravention of which no penalty has been separately provided, shall be liable to pay a compensation not exceeding twenty-five thousand rupees to the person affected by such contravention or a penalty not exceeding twenty-five thousand rupees.

46. Power to adjudicate. –

(1) For the purpose of adjudging under this Chapter whether any person has committed a contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, regulation, direction or order made thereunder the Central

Government shall, subject to the provisions of sub section (3), appoint any officer not below the rank of a Director to the Government of India or an equivalent officer of a State Government to be an adjudicating officer for holding an inquiry in the manner prescribed by the Central Government .

(2) The adjudicating officer shall, after giving the person referred to in sub-section (1) a reasonable opportunity for making representation in the matter and if, on such inquiry, he is satisfied that the person has committed the contravention, he may impose such penalty or award such compensation as he thinks fit in accordance with the provisions of that section.

(3) No person shall be appointed as an adjudicating officer unless he possesses such experience in the filed of Information Technology and legal or judicial experience as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(4) Where more than one adjudicating officers are appointed, the Central Government shall specify by order the matters and places with respect to which such officers shall exercise their jurisdiction.

(5) Every adjudicating officer shall have the powers of a civil court which are conferred on the Cyber Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (2) of section (2) of section 58, and-

(a) all proceedings before it shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of section 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860);

(b) shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purpose of section 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

47. Factors to be taken into account by the adjudicating officer. –

While adjudging the quantum of compensation under this Chapter, the adjudicating officer shall have due regard to the following factors, namely:-

(a) the amount of gain of unfair advantage, whenever quantifiable, made as a result of the default;

(b) the amount of loss caused to any person as a result of the default;

(c) the repetitive nature of the default.

Chapter X – The Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal

48. Establishment of Cyber Appellate Tribunal. –

(1) The Central Government shall, by notification, establish one or more appellate tribunals to be known as the Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal.

(2) The Central Government shall also specify, in the notification referred to in sub-section (1), the matters and places in relation to which the Cyber Appellate Tribunal may exercise jurisdiction.

49. Composition of Cyber Appellate Tribunal.-

A cyber Appellate Tribunal shall consist of one person only (hereinafter referred to as the Presiding Officer of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal) to be appointed, by notification, by the Central Government.

50. Qualifications for appointment as Presiding Officer of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal. –

A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal unless he-

(a) is, or has been, or is qualified to be, a Judge of a High Court; or

(b) is, or has been, a member of the Indian Legal Service and is holding or has held a post in Grade I of that Service for at least three years.

51. Term of office. –

The Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office or until he attains the age of sixty-five years whichever is earlier.

52. Salary , allowance and other terms conditions of service of Presiding Officer.-

The salary and allowances payable to, and the other terms and conditions of service including pension, gratuity and other retirement benefits of, the Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be such as may be prescribed:

Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other terms and conditions of service of the Presiding Officers shall be varied to his disadvantage after appointment.

53. Filling up of vacancies. –

If, for reason other than temporary absence, any vacancy occurs in the office of the Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal, then the Central Government shall appoint another person in accordance with the provisions of this Act to fill the vacancy and the proceedings may be continued before the Cyber appellate Tribunal from the state at which the vacancy is filled.

54. Resignation and removal. –

(1) The Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal may, by notice in writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government, resign his office:

Provided that the said Presiding Officer shall, unless he is permitted by the Central Government to relinquish his office sooner, continue to hold office until the expiry of three months from the date of receipt of such notice or until a person duly appointed as his successor enters upon his office or until the expiry of his term of office, whichever is the earliest.

(2) The Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall not be removed from his office except by an order by the Central Government on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity after an inquiry made by a Judge of the Supreme Court in which the Presiding Officer concerned has been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of these charges.

(3) the Central Government may, by rules, regulate the procedure for the investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the aforesaid Presiding Officer.

55. Orders constituting Appellate Tribunal to be final and not to invalidate its proceedings. –

No order of the Central Government appointing any person as the Presiding Officer of a Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be called in question in any manner and no act or proceeding before a Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be called in question in any manner on the ground merely of any defect in the constitution of Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

56. Staff of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal. –

(1) The Central Government shall provide the Cyber Appellate Tribunal with such officers and employees as that Government may think fit.

(2) The officers and employees of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall discharge their functions under general superintendence of the Presiding Officer.

(3) The salaries any allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and employees of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be such as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

57. Appeal to Cyber Regulations Appellate Tribunal. –

(1) Save as provided in sub-section (2), any person aggrieved by an order made by controller or an adjudicating officer under this Act may prefer an appeal to a Cyber Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction in the matter.

(2) No appeal shall lie to the Cyber Appellate Tribunal from an order made by an adjudicating officer with the consent of the parties.

(3) Every appeal under sub-section (1) shall be filed within a period of forty-five days from the date on which a copy of the order made by the Controller or the adjudicating officer is received by the person aggrieved and it shall be in such form and be accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed;

Provided that the Cyber Appellate Tribunal may entertain an appeal after the expiry of the said period of forty-five days if it is satisfied that there was sufficient cause for not filing it within that period.

(4) On receipt of an appeal under sub-section (1), the Cyber Appellate Tribunal may, after giving the parties to the appeal, an opportunity of being heard, pass such orders thereon as it thinks fit, confirming, modifying or setting aside the order appealed against.

(5) the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall send a copy of every order made by it to the parties tot he appeal and to the concerned controller or adjudicating officer.

(6) The appeal filed before the Cyber Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (1) shall be dealt with by it as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made by it to dispose of the appeal finally within sic months from the date of receipt of the appeal.

58. Procedure and powers of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal. –

(1) The Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), but shall be guided by the principles of natural justice and, subject to the other provisions of this Act and of any rules, the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have powers to regulate its own procedure including the place at which it shall have its sittings.

(2) The Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall have, for the purposes of discharging its functions under this Act, the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), while trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely:

(a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him on oath;

(b) requiring the discovery and production of documents or other electronic records;

(c) receiving evidence on affidavits;

(d) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents;

(e) reviewing its decisions;

(f) dismissing an application for default or deciding it ex parte;

(g) any other matter which may be prescribed.

(3) Every proceeding before the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be a judicial proceeding within the meaning of section 193 and 228, and for the purposes of section 196 of the Indian Penal Code(45 of 1860) and the Cyber Appellate Tribunal shall be deemed to be a civil court for the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974).

59. Right to legal representation. –

The appellant may either appear in person or authorise one or more legal practitioners or any of its officers to present his or its case before the Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

60. Limitation. –

The provisions of the Limitation Act, 12963f (36 of 1963), shall, as far as may be, apply to an appeal made to the Cyber Appellate Tribunal.

61. Civil court not to have jurisdiction. –

No court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which an adjudicating officer appointed under this Act or the Cyber Appellate Tribunal constituted under this Act is empowered by or under this Act to determine and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act.

62. Appeal to High Court. –

Any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal may file an appeal to the High Court within sixty days from the date of communication of the decision or order of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal to him on any question of fact or law arising out of such order:

Provided that the High Court may, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filing the appeal within the said period, allow it to filed within a further period not exceeding sixty days.

63. Compounding of contraventions. –

(1) Any contravention under this Chapter may, either before or after the institution of adjudication proceedings, be compounded by the Controller or such other officer as may be specially authorised by him in this behalf or by the adjudicating officer, as the case may be, subject to such conditions as the Controller or such other officer or the adjudicating officer, as the case may be, subject to such conditions as the Controller or such other officer or the adjudicating officer may specify.

Provided that such sum shall not, in any case, exceed the maximum amount of the penalty which may be imposed under this Act for the contravention so compounded.

(2) Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply to a person who commits the same or similar contravention within a period of three years form the date on which the first contravention, committed, by him, was compounded.

Explanation:- For the purposes of this sub-section, any second or subsequent contravention committed after the expiry of a period of three years from the date on which the contravention was previously compounded shall be deemed to be a first contravention.

(3) Where any contravention has been compounded under sub-section(I), no proceeding or further proceeding, or further proceeding, as the case may be, shall be taken against the person guilty of such contravention in respect of the contravention so compounded.

64. Recovery of penalty. –

A penalty imposed under this Act, if it is not paid shall be recovered as an arrear of land revenue and the licence or the Digital Signature Certificate, as the case may be, shall be suspended till the penalty is paid.

Chapter XI – Offences

65. Tampering with computer source documents. –

Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals, destroy, or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer programme, computer system or computer network, when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in force, shall be punishable with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both.

Explanation – For the purposes of this section, “computer source code” means the listing of programmes, compute commands, design and layout and programme analysis of computer resource in any form.

66. Hacking with Computer System. –

(1) Whoever with the intent of cause or knowing that is likely to cause wrongful loss or damage to the public or any person destroys or deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means, commits hacking.

(2) Whoever commits hacking shall be punished with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both.

[ 66 A Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service, etc.

( Introduced vide ITAA 2008)
Any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device,
–
a) any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character; or
b) any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred, or ill will, persistently makes by making use of such computer resource or a communication device,
c) any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the or igin of such messages(Inserted vide ITAA 2008)shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two three years and with fine.
Explanation: For the purposes of this section, terms “Electronic mail” and “Electronic Mail Message” means a message or information created or transmitted or received on a computer, computer system, computer resource or communication device including attachments in text, image, audio, video and any other electronic record, which may be transmitted with the message]

[ 66 B Punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or communication device (Inserted Vide ITA 2008)

Whoever dishonestly receives or retains any stolen computer resource or communication device knowing or having reason to believe thesame to be stolen computer resource or

communication device, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years or with fine which may extend to rupees one lakh or with both.]

[ 66C Punishment for identity theft. (Inserted Vide ITA 2008)

Whoever, fraudulently or dishonestly make use of the electronic signature, password or any other unique identification feature of any other person, shall be punished with imprisonment of eitherdescription for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to rupees one lakh.]

[66D Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource (Inserted Vide ITA 2008)

Whoever, by means of any communication device or computer resource cheats by personation, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to

three years and shall also be liable to fine which may extend to one lakh rupees.]

66 E. Punishment for violation of privacy. (Inserted Vide ITA 2008)

Whoever, intentionally or knowingly captures, publishes or transmits the image of a private area of any person without his or her consent, under circumstances violating the privacy of thatperson, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to three years or with fine not exceeding two lakh rupees, or with both

Explanation –

For the purposes of this section —

(a) ―transmit‖ means to electronically send a visual image with the intent that it be viewed

by a person or persons;

(b) ―capture‖, with respect to an image, means to videotape, photograph, film or record

by any means;

(c) ―private area‖ means the naked or undergarment clad genitals, pubic area, buttocks or

female breast;

(d) ―publishes‖ means reproduction in the printed or electronic form and making it available for public;

(e) – under circumstances violating privacy‖ means circumstances in which a person can have a reasonable expectation that—

(i) he or she could disrobe in privacy, without being concerned that an image of his private area was being captured; or

(ii) any part of his or her private area would not be visible to the public, regardless of whether that person is in a public or private place.]

67. Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form.

Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published in the electronic form, any material which is lascivious or appeal to the prurient interest or if its effect is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it, shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees and in the event of a second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years and also with fine which may extend to two lakh rupees.

68. Power of the Controller to give directions. –

(1) The Controller may, by order, direct a Certifying Authority or any employee of such Authority to take such measures or cease carrying on such activities as specified in the order if those are necessary to ensure compliance with the provisions of this Act, rules or any regulations made thereunder.

(2) Any person who fails to comply with any order under sub-section (1) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding two lakh rupees or to both.

69. Directions of Controller to a subscriber to extend facilities to decrypt information. –

(1) If the Controller is satisfied that it is necessry or expedient so to do in the interest of the sovereignty or integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of any cognizable offence, for reasons to be recorded in writing, by order, direct any agency of the Government to intercept any information transmitted through any computer resource.

(2) The subscriber or any person in charge of the computer resource shall, when called upon by any agency which has been directed under sub-section (1), extend all facilities and technical assistance to decrypt the information.

(3) The subscriber or any person who fails to assist the agency referred to in sub-section (2) shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years.

70. Protected system.-

(1) The appropriate Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any computer, computer system or computer network to be a protected system.

(2) The appropriate Government may, by order in writing, authorise the persons who are authorised to access protected systems notified under sub-section.

(3) Any person who secures access or attempts to secure access to a protected system in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine.

71. Penalty for misrepresentation.-

Whoever makes any misrepresentation, to, or suppresses any material fact from, the Controller or the Certifying Authority for obtaining any licennce or Digital Signature Certificate, as the case may be, shall be punished with imprisonment for a terms which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

72. Breach of confidentiality and privacy.-

Save as otherwise provided in this Act or any other law for the time being in force, if any person who, in pursuance of any of the powers conferred under this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder, has secured access to any electronic record, book, register, correspondence, information, document or other material without the consent of the person concerned discloses such electronic record, book, register, correspondence, information, document or other material to any other person shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

73. Penalty for publishing Digital Signature Certificate false in certain particulars. –

(1) No person shall publish a Digital Signature Certificate or otherwise make it available to any other person with the knowledge that-

(a) the Certifying Authority listed in the certificate has not issued it; or

(b) the subscriber listed in the certificate has not accepted it; or

(c) the certificate has been revoked or suspended, unless such publication is for the purposes of verifying a digital signature created prior to such suspension or revocation.

(2) Any person who contravenes the provisions of sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

74. Publication for fraudulent purpose. –

Whoever knowingly creates, publishes or otherwise makes available a Digital Signature Certificate for any fraudulent or unlawful purpose shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both.

75. Act to apply for offence or contravention committed outside India. –

(1) Subject to the provision of sub-section (2), the provisions of this Act shall apply also to any offence or contravention committed outside India by any person irrespective of his nationality.

(2) For the purposes of sub-section(1), this act shall apply to an offence or contravention committed outside India by any person if the act or conduct constituting located in India.

76. Confiscation. –

Any computer, computer system, floppies, compact disks, tape drives or nay other accessories related thereto, in respect of the if which any provision of this Act, rule, orders or regulations made thereunder has been or is being contravened, shall be liable to confiscation:

Provided that where it is established to the satisfaction of the court adjudicating the confiscation that the person in whose possession, power or control of any such computer, computer system, floppies, compact disks, tape drives or any other accessories relating thereto is found is not responsible for the contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules, orders or regulations made thereunder, the court may, instead of making an order for confiscation of such computer, computer system, floppies, compact disks, tape drives or any other accessories related thereto, make such other order authorised by this Act against the person contravening of the provisions of this Act, rules, orders or regulations made thereunder as it may think fit.

77. Penalties and confiscation not to interfere with other punishments. –

No penalty imposed or confiscation made under this Act shall prevent the imposition of any other punishment to which the person affected thereby is liable under any other law for the time being in force.

78. Power to investigate offence. –

Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), a police officer not below the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police shall investigate any offence under this Act.

Chapter XII – Network service providers not to be liable in certain cases

79. Network service providers not to be liable in certain cases. –

For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that no person providing any service as a network service provider shall be liable under this Act, rules or regulations made thereunder for any third party information or data made available by him if he proves that the offence or contravention was committed without his knowledge or that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence for contravention.

Explanation- For the purposes of this section,- (a) “network service provider” means an intermediary;

(b) “third party information” means any information dealt with by a network service provider in his capacity as an intermediary.

Chapter XIII – Miscellaneous

80. Power of police officer and other officers to enter, search, etc. –

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 any police officer, not below the rank of a Deputy Superintendent of Police or any other officer of the Central Government or a State

Government auithorised by the Central Government in this behalf may enter any public place and search and the Central Government in this behalf may enter any public place and search and arrest without warrant any person found therein who is reasonably suspected of having committed or of committing or of being about to commit any offence under this Act.

Explanation:- For the purposes of this sub-section, the expression “public place” includes any public conveyance, any hotel, any shop or any other place intended for use by, or accessible to the public.

(2) Where any person is arrested under sub-section (1) by an officer other than a police officer, such officer shall, without unnecessary delay, take or sent the person arrest before a magistrate having jurisdiction in the case or before the officer-in-charge of a police station.

(3) The provisions of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 shall, subject to the provisions of this section, apply, so far as may be, in relation to any entry, search or arrest, made under this section.

81. Act to have overriding effect. –

The provisions of this Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything consistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force.

82. Controller, Deputy Controller and Assistant Controllers to be public servants. –

The Presiding Officer and other officer and employees of a Cyber appellate Tribunal, the Controller, the Deputy Controller and the Assistant Controllers shall be deemed to be public servants within the meaning of section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

83. Power to give directions.-

The Central Government may give directions to any State Government as to the carrying into execution in the State of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, regulation or order made thereunder.

84. Protection of action taken in good faith. –

No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Central Government, the State government, the Controller or any person acting on behalf of him, the Presiding Officer , adjudicating officers and the staff of the Cyber Appellate Tribunal for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or any rule, regulation or order made thereunder.

85. Offences by companies. –

(1) Where a person committing a contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, direction or order made thereunder is a company, every person who, at the time the contravention was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of business of the company as well as the company, shall be guilty of the contravention and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to punishment if he proves that the contravention took place without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent such contravention.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where a contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule, direction or order made thereunder has been committed by a company and it is proved that the contravention has taken place with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of the contravention and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section- (a) “company” means and body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) “directors”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

86. Removal of difficulties. –

(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as appear to it to be necessary or expedient for removing the difficulty;

Provide that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of a period of two years from the commencement of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament.

87. Power of Central Government to make rules. –

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette and in the Electronic Gazette, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matter, namely:-

(a) the manner in which any information or matter may be authenticated by means of digital signature under section 5;

(b) the electronic form in which filing, issue, grant or payment shall be effected under sub-section (1) of section 6

(c) the manner and format in which electronic records shall be filed, or issued and the method of payment under sub-section (2) of section 6;

(d) the matters relating to the type of digital signature, manner and format in which it may be affixed under section 10;

(e) the security procedure for the purpose of creating secure electronic record and secure digital signature under section 16;

(f) the qualifications, experience and terms and conditions of service of controller, Deputy Controllers and Assistant Controller under section 17;

(g) other standards to be observed by the Controller under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 20;

(h) the requirements which an applicant must fulfil under sub-section (2) of section 21;

(i) the period of validity of licence granted under clause (a) of sub-section (3) of section 21;

(j) the form in which an application for licence may be made under sub-section 22;

(k) the amount of fees payable under clause (c)of sub-section (2)o of section 22;

(l) such other documents which shall accompany an application for licence under clause (d) of sub-section (2) of section 22;

(m) the form and the fee for renewal of a licence and the fee payable thereof under section 23;

(n) the amount of late fee payable under the proviso to section 23;

(o) the form in which application for issue of a Digital Signature Certificate my be made under sub-section (1) of section35;

(p) the fee to be paid to the Certifying Authority for issue of a Digital Signature Certificate under sub-section (2) of section 35;

(q) the manner in which the adjudicating officer shall hold inquiry under sub-section (1) of section 46;

(r) the qualification and experience which the adjudicating officer shall possess under sub-section (2) of section 46;

(s) the salary, allowances and the other terms and conditions of service of the Presiding Officer under section 52;

(t) the procedure for investigation of misbehaviour or incapacity of the Presiding Officer under sub-section (3) of section 54;

(u) the salary and allowances and other conditions of service of other officers and employees under sub-section (3) of section 56;

(v) the form in which appeal may be filed and the fee thereof under sub-section (3) of section 57;

(w) any other power of a civil court required to be prescribed under clause (g) of sub-section (2) of section 58; and

(x) any other matter which is required to be, or may be, prescribed.

(3) Every notification made by the Central Government under clause (f) of sub-section (4) of section 1 and every rule made by it shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament , while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the notification or the rule or both Houses agree that the notification or the rule should not be made, the notification or the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be, so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

88. Constitution of Advisory Committee. –

(1) The Central Government shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, constitute a Committee called the Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee.

(2) The Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee shall consist of a Chairperson and such number of other official and non-official members representing the interests principal affected or having special knowledge of the subject-matter as the Central Government may deem fit.

(3) The Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee shall advise-

(a) the Central Government either generally as regards any rules or for any other purpose connected with this Act.

(4) There shall be paid to the non-official members of such Committee such traveling and other allowances as the Central Government may fix.

89. Power of Controller to make regulations. –

(1) The Controller may, after consultation with the Cyber Regulations Advisory Committee and with the previous approval of the Central Government, by notification in the Official Gazette, make regulations consistent with this Act and the rules made thereunder to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) the particulars relating to maintenance of data-base containing the disclosure record of every Certifying Authority under clause (m) of section 18;

(b) the conditions and restrictions subject to which the Controller may recoginse any foreign Certifying Authority under sub-section (1) of section 19;

(c) the terms and conditions subject to which a licence may be granted under clause (c) of sub-section (3) of section 21;

(d) other standards to be observed by a Certifying Authority under clause (d) of section 30;

(e) the manner in which the Certifying shall disclose the matters specified in sub-section (1) of section 34;

(f) the particulars of statement which shall accompany an application under sub-section (3) of section 35.

(g) the manner by which the subscriber communicate the compromise of private key to the Certifying Authority under sub-section (2) of section 42.

(3) Every regulations made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the regulation or both Houses agree that the regulation should not be made, the regulation shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that regulation.

90. Power of State Government to make rules. –

(1) The State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules to carry out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:-

(a) the electronic form in which filing, issue, grant, receipt or payment shall be effected under sub-section (1) of section 6;

(b) for matters specified in sub-section (2) of section 6;

(c) any other matter which is required to be provided by rules by the State Government.

(3) Every rule made by the State Government under this section shall be laid , as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of the State Legislature where it consists of two Houses, or where such Legislature consists of one House, before that House.

91. Amendment of Act 45 of 1860.-

The Indian Penal Code shall be amended in the manner specified in the First Schedule to this Act.

92. Amendment of Act 1 of 1872. –

The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 shall be amended in the manner specified in the Second Schedule to this Act.

93. Amendment of Act 18 of 1891.-

The Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891 shall be amended in the manner specified in the Third Schedule to this Act.

94. Amendment of Act 2 of 1934.-

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 shall be amended in the manner specified in the Fourth Schedule to this Act.

THE FIRST SCHEDULE

AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN PENAL CODE

1. After section 29, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “29 A. Electronic record.- The words “electronic record” shall have the meaning assigned to them in clause (t) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000″.

2. In section 167, for the words “such public servant, charged with the preparation or translation of any document, frames or translates that document”, the words “such public servant, charged with the preparation or translation of any document or electronic record, frames, prepares or translates that document or electronic record” shall be substituted.

3. In section 172, for the words “produce a document in a Court of Justice”, the words “produce a document or an electronic record in a court of Justice” shall be substituted.

4. In section 173, for the words “to produce a document in a Court of Justice” , the words “to produce a document or electronic record in Court of Justice” shall be substituted.

5. In section 175, for the word “document” at both the places where it occurs, the words “document or electronic record” shall be substituted.

6. In section 192, for the words “makes any false entry in any book or record, or makes any document containing a false statement”, the words “makes any false entry in any book or record, or electronic record or makes any document or electronic recording containing a false statement ” shall be substituted.

7. In section 204, for the word “document” at both the places where it occurs, the words “document or electronic record” shall be substituted.

8. In section 463, for the words “Whoever makes any false documents or part of a document with intent to cause damage or injury”, the words “Whoever makes any false documents or false electronic record or party of a document or electronic record, with intent to cause damage or injury” shall be substituted.

9. In section 464,- (a) for the portion beginning with the words “A person is said to make a false document” and ending with the words “by reason of deception practised upon him, he does not know the contents of the documents or the nature of the alteration”, the following shall be substituted, namely:-

(a) makes, sign, seals or executes a document or part of a document;

(b) makes or transmits any electronic record or part of any electronic record;

(c) affixes any digital signature on any electronic record;

(d) makes any mark denoting the execution of a document or the authenticity of the digital signature, with the intention of causing it to be believed that such document or part of document, electronic record or digital signature was made, signed, sealed, executed, transmitted or affixed by or by the authority or a person by whom or by whose authority he knows that it was not made, signed, sealed, executed or affixed; or

Secondly-who, without lawful authority, dishonestly or fraudulently, by cancellation or otherwise, alters a document or an electronic record in any material part thereof, after it has been made, executed or affixed with digital signature either by himself or by any other person, whether such person be living or dead at the time of such alteration; or

Thirdly:- Who dishonestly or fraudulently causes any person, sign, seal, execute or alter a document or an electronic record or to affix his digital signature on any electronic record knowing that such person by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication cannot, or that by reason of deception practised upon him, he does not know the contents of the document or electronic record or the nature of the alteration”.

(b) after Explanation 2, the following Explanation shall be inserted at the end, namely:-

‘Explantion 3.- For the purposes of this section, the expression “affixing digital signature’ shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.

10. In section 466,-

(a) for the words “Whoever forges a document”, the words “Whoever forges a document or an electronic record” shall be substituted.

(b) the following Explanation shall be inserted at the end, namely:-

Explanation-For the purposes of this section, “register” includes any list, data or record of nay entries maintained in the electronic for as defined in clause ( r) of sub-section (1) of section2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.

11. In section 468, for the words “document forged” , the words “document or electronic record forged” shall be substituted.

12. In section 469, for the words “intending that the document forged”, the words “intending that the document or electronic record forge” shall be substituted.

13. In section 470, for the word “document” in both the places where it occurs, the words “document or electronic record” shall be substituted.

14. In section 471, for the word “document” whenever it occurs, the words “document or electronic record” shall be substituted

15. In section 474, for the portion beginning with the words “Whoever has in his possession any document” and ending with the words ” if the document is one of the description mentioned in section 466 of this Code” the following shall be substitute, namely:-

“Whoever has in his possession any document or electronic record, knowing the same to be forged and intending that the same shall fraudulently or dishonestly be used as a genuine, shall, if the document or electronic record is one of the description mentioned in section 466 of this Code.”

16. In section 476, for the words ” any document”, the words “any document or electronic record” shall be substituted.

17. In section 477a, for the words “book, paper, writing” at both the places where they occur, the words “book, electronic record, paper, writing ” shall be substituted.

THE SECOND SCHEDULE

AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN EVIDENCE ACT, 1872

1. In section 3,-

(a) in the definition of “Evidence’, for the words “all document produced for the inspection of the Court”, the words “all documents including electronic records produced for the inspection of the Court” shall be substituted ;

(b) after the definition of “India, the following shall be inserted, namely:-

‘the expressions “Certifying Authority”, digital signature”, “Digital Signature Certificate”, “electronic form”, “electronic records”, “information”, “secure electronic record”, “secure digital signature” and “subscriber’ shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Information Technology Act, 2000.

2. IN section 17, for the words “oral or documentary,” words “oral or documentary or contained in electronic form’ shall be substituted.

3. After section 22, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “22A”. When oral admission as to contents of electronic records are relevant.-

Oral admission as to contents of electronic records are not relevant, unless the genuineness of the electronic record produced is in question”.

4. In section 34, for the words “Entries in the books of account”, the words “Entries in the books of account, including those maintained in an electronic form” shall be substituted.

5. In section 35, for the word “record”, in both the places where it occurs, the words “record or an electronic record” shall be substituted.

6. For section 39, the following section shall be substituted, namely:- “39. What evidence to be given when statement forms part of a conversation, documents, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers.-When any statement of which evidence is given forms part of longer statement, or of a conversation or part of an isolated documents, or is contained in a document which forms part of a book, or is contained in part of electronic record or of a connected series of letters or papers, evidence shall be given of so much and no more of the statement, conversation, document, electronic record, book or series of letters or papers as the Court considers necessary in that particular case to the full understanding of the nature and effect of the statement, and of the circumstances under which it was made.”

7. After section 47, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “47A. Opinion as to digital signature when relevant.- When the court has to form an opinion as to the digital signature of any person, the opinion of the Certifying Authority which has issued the digital signature Certificate is a relevant fact”

8. In section 59, for the words “contents of documents “the words” contents of documents or electronic records” shall be substituted.

9. After section 65, the following shall be inserted, namely:- “65A. Special provisions as to evidence relating to electronic record.-the contents of electronic records may be proved in accordance with the provisions of section 65B.

65B. Admissibility of electronic records.-(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any information contained in an electronic record which is printed on a paper, stored, recorded or copies in optical or magnetic media produced by a computer (hereinafter referred to as the computer output) shall be deemed to be also a document, if the conditions mentioned in this section are satisfied in relation to the information and computer in question and shall be admissible in any proceedings, without further proof or production of the original, as evidence of any contents of the original or of any fact stated therein of which direct evidence would be admissible.

(2) The conditions referred to in sub-section (1) in respect of a computer output shall be the following, namely:- (a) the computer output containing the information was produced by the computer during the period over which the computer was used regularly to store or process information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that period by the person having lawful control over the use of the computer;

(b) during the said period, information of the kind contained in the electronic record or of the kind from which the information so contained is derived was regularly fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities;

(c) throughout the material part of the said period, the computer was operating properly or, if not; then in respect of any period in which it was not operating properly or was out of operation during that part of the period, was not such as to affect the electronic record or the accuracy of its contents;

(d) the information contained in the electronic record reproduces or is derived from such information fed into the computer in the ordinary course of the said activities.

(3) Where over any period, the function of storing or processing information for the purposes of any activities regularly carried on over that the period as mentioned in clause (a) of sub-section (2) was regularly performed by computers, whether- (a) by a combination of computers operating over that period; or

(b) by different computer operating in succession over that period; or

(c) by different combinations of computers operating in succession over that period; or

(d) in any other manner involving the successive operation over that period, in whatever order, of one or more computers and one or more combinations of computers, all the computers used for that purpose during that period shall be treated for the purposes of this section as constituting single computer, and references in this section to a computer shall be construed accordingly.

(4) In any proceedings where it is desired to give a statement in evidence by virtue of this section, a certificate doing any of the following things, that is to say-

(a) identifying the electronic record containing the statement and describing the manner in which it was produced;

(b) giving such particulars of any device involved in the production of that electronic record as may be appropriate for the purpose of showing that the electronic record was produced by a computer;

(c) dealing with any of the matters to which the conditions mentioned in sub-section (2) relate, and purporting to be signed by a person occupying a responsible official position in relation to the operation of the relevant device or the management of the relevant activities (whichever is appropriate) shall be evidence of any matter sufficient for a matter to be stated to the best of knowledge and belief of the person stating it.

(5) For the purposes of this section,-

(a) information shall be taken to be supplied to a computer if it is supplied thereto in any appropriate form and whether it is so supplied directly or (with or without intervention) by means of any appropriate equipment;

(b) whether in the course of activities carried on by any official, information is supplied with a view to its being stored or processed for the purposes of those activities by a computer operated otherwise than in the course of those activities, that information, in duly supplied to that computer shall be taken to be supplied to it those activities;

(c) a computer output shall be taken to have been produced by a computer whether it was produced by it directly or (with or without human intervention) by means of any appropriate equipment.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section any reference to information being derived from other information shall be a reference to its being derived therefrom by calculation, comparison or any other process;

10. After section 67, the following section shall be inserted , namely:- “67. Proof as to digital signature.- Except in the case of a secure digital signature, if the digital signature of any subscriber is alleged to have been affixed to an electronic record the fact that such digital signature is the digital signature of the subscriber must be proved.’

11. After section 73, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “73A. Proof as to verification of digital signature.-In order to ascertain whether a digital signature is that of the person by whom it purports to have been affixed, the Court may direct-

(a) that person or the Controller or the Certifying Authority to produce the Digital Signature Certificate;

(b) any other person to apply the public key listed in the Digital Signature Certificate and verify the digital signature purported to have been affixed by that person.”

Explanation .-For the purposes of this section, “Controller” means the Controller appointed under sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Information Technology Act, 2000.”

12. After section 81, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “81A. Presumption as to Gazettes in electronic forms.-The Court shall presume the genuineness of every electronic record purporting to be the Official Gazette, or purporting to be electronic record directed by any law to be kept by person, if such electronic record is kept substantially in the form required by law and is produced from proper custody.”

13. After section 85, the following sections shall be inserted, namely:- “85A. Presumption as to electronic agreements.- The court shall presume that every electronic record purporting to be an agreement containing the digital signatures of the parties was so concluded by affixing the digital signature of the parties.

“85B. Presumption as to electronic records and digital signatures.-(1) IN any proceedings involving a secure digital signature, the Court shall presume unless the contrary is proved that-

(a) the secure digital signature is affixed by subscriber with the intention of signing or approving the electronic record;

(b) except in the case of a secure electronic record or a secure digital signature, nothing in this section shall create any presumption relating to authenticity and integrity of the electronic record or any digital signature.

85C. Presumption as to Digital Signature Certificates.-The Court shall presume, unless contrary is proved, that the information listed in a Digital Signature Certificate is correct, except for information specified as subscriber information which has not been verified, if the certificate was accepted by the subscriber .”

14. After section 88, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “88A. Presumption as to electronic messages.- The Court may presume that b electronic message forwarded by the originator through an electronic mail server to the addresses to whom the message purports to be addressed corresponds with the message as fed into his computer for transmission; but the Court shall not make any presumption as to the person by whom such message was sent.”

Explanation.-for the purposes of this section, the expression “addressee’ and “originator” shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in clauses (b) and (za) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the information Technology Act, 2000.”

15. After section 90, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “90 A. . Presumption as to electronic records five years old.-where any electronic record, purporting or proved to be five years old, is produced from any custody which the court in the particular case considers proper, the Court may presume that the digital signature which purports to be the digital signature of any particular person was so affixed by him or any person authorised by him this behalf.

Explanation.-Electronic records are said to be in proper custody if they are in the place in which, and under the care of the person with whom, they naturally be; but no custody is improper if it is proved to have had a legitimate origin, or the circumstances of the particular case are such as to render such and origin probable.

16. For section 131 the following section shall be substituted, namely:-

131. Production of documents or electronic records which another person, having possession, could refuse to produce.- No one shall be compelled to produce documents in his possession or electronic records under his control, which any other person would be entitled to refuse to produce if they wer in his possessions or control, unless such last-mentioned person consents to their production.”

THE THIRD SCHEDULE

AMENDMENTS TO THE BANKERS’ BOOKS EVIDENCE ACT,1891

1. In section2,- (a) for clause (3), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:- (3) “bankers” books “include ledgers, day-books, accounts-books and all other books used in the ordinary business of a bank whether kept in the written form or as printouts of date stored in floppy, disc, tape or any other form of electro-magnetic data storage device:

(b) for clause (8), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:- (8) “certified copy” means when the books of a bank,-

(a) are maintained in written form, a copy of any entry in such books together with a certificate written at the foot of such copy that it is true copy of such entry, that such entry is contained in one of the ordinary books of the bank and was made in the usual and ordinary course of business and that such book is still in the custody of the bank, and where copy was obtained by a mechanical or other process which in itself ensured the accuracy of the copy, a further certificate to that effect, but where the book from which the copy had been so prepared, a further certificate to that effect, each such certificate being dated and subscriber by the principal accountant or manger of the bank with his name and official title; and

(b) consist of printouts of data stored in a floppy, disc, tape or any other electro-magnetic data storage device, a printout of such entry or a copy of such entry or a copy of such printout together with such statements certified in accordance with the provisions of section 2A;

2. After section 2, the following section shall be inserted, namely:- “2A”.Conditions in the printout.-A printout of entry or a copy of printout referred to in sub-section (8) of section 2 shall be accompanied by the following, namely:-

(a) a certificate to the effect that it is a printout of such entry or a copy of such printout by the principal accountant or branch manager; and

(b) a certificate by a person in-charge of computer system containing a brief description of the computer system and the particulars of-

(A) the safeguards adopted by the system to ensure that data is entered or any other operation performed only by authorised person;

(B) the safeguards adopted to prevent and detect unauthorised change of data;

(C) the safeguards available to retrieve data that is lost due to systemic failure or any other reasons;

(D) the manner in which data is transferred from the system to removable media like floppies, discs, tapes or other electro-magnetic data storage devices;

(E) the mode of verification in order to ensure that data has been accurately transferred to such removable media;

(F) the mode of identification of such data storage devices;

(G) the arrangements for the storage and custody of such storage devices;

(H) the safeguards to prevent and detect any tampering with the system; and

(I) any other factor which will vouch for the integrity and accuracy of the system.

(c) a further certificate from the person in-charge of the computer system to the effect that to the best of his knowledge and belief, such computer system operated properly at the material time, he was provided with all the relevant data and the printout in question represents correctly, or is appropriately derived from, the relevant data.”

THE FOURTH SCHEDULE

AMENDMENT TO THE RESERVE BANK OF INDIA ACT, 1934

In the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 in section 58, in sub-section (2), after clause (p), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:- “(pp) the regulation of fund transfer through electronic means between the banks or between the banks and other financial institution referred to in clause (c) of section 45-I, including the laying down of the conditions subject to which banks and other financial institutions shall participate in such fund transfers, the manner of such fund transfers and the rights and obligations of the participants in such fund transfers.

The Copyright Act, 1957

CHAPTER I – Preliminary

1. Short title, extent and commencement

(1) This act may be called the Copyright Act, 1957

(2) It extends to the whole of India

(3) It shall come into force on such date1as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

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1. Came into force on 21-1-1958, vide S.R.O. 269, dated 21st January, 1958, published in the Gazette of India, Extra., Pt. II, Sec. 3, p. 167.

2.Interpretation –

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “adaptation” means,—

(i) in relation to a dramatic work, the conversion of the work into a non-dramatic work;

(ii) in relation to a literary work or an artistic work, the conversion of the work into a dramatic work by way of performance in public or otherwise;

(iii) in relation to a literary or dramatic work, any abridgement of the work or any version of the work in which the story or action in conveyed wholly or mainly by means of pictures in a form suitable for reproduction in a book, or in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical;1[***]

(iv) in relation to a musical work, any arrangement or transcription of the work;2[and]

2[(v) in relation to any work, any use of such work involving its rearrangement or alteration;]

(b)3[‘‘work of architecture’’] means any building or structure having as artistic character or design, or any model for such building or structure;

(c) “artistic work” means,—

(i) a painting, a sculpture, a drawing (including a diagram, map, chart or plan), an engraving or a photograph, whether or not any such work possesses artistic quality;

(ii) a4[work of architecture]; and

(iii) any other work of artistic craftsmanship;

(d) “author’’ means,—

(i) in relation to a literary or dramatic work, the author of the work;

(ii) in relation to a musical work, the composer;

(iii) in relation to an artistic work other than a photograph, the artist;

(iv) in relation to a photograph, the person taking the photograph;

5[(v) in relation to a cinematograph film or sound recording, the producer; and

(vi) in relation to any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work which is computer-generated, the person who causes the work to be created;]

6[(dd) “broadcast” means communication to the public—

(i) by any means of wireless diffusion, whether in any one or more of the forms of signs, sounds or visual images; or

(ii) by wire,and includes a re-broadcast;]

(e) “ calendar year” means the year commencing on the 1st day of January;

7[(f) “cinematograph film” means any work of visual recording on any medium produced through a process from which a moving image may be produced by any means and includes a sound recording accompanying such visual recording and “cinematograph” shall be construed as including any work produced by any process analogous to cinematography including video films;]

8[(ff) “communication to the public” means making any work available for being seen or heard or otherwise enjoyed by the public directly or by any means of display or diffusion other than by issuing copies of such work regardless of whether any member of the public actually sees, hears or otherwise enjoys the work so made available.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause, communication through satellite or cable or any other means of simultaneous communication to more than one household or place of residence including residential rooms of any hotel or hostel shall be deemed to be communication to the public;

(ffa) “composer”, in relation to a musical work, means the person who composes the music regardless of whether he records it in any form of graphical notation;

(ffb) “computer” includes any electronic or similar device having information processing capabilities;

(ffc) “computer programme” means a set of instructions expressed in words, codes, schemes or in any other form, including a machine readable medium, capable of causing a computer to perform a particular task or achieve a particular result;

(ffd) “copyright society” means a society registered under sub-section (3) of section 33;]

(g) “delivery”, in relation to a lecture, includes delivery by means of any mechanical instrument or by 9[broadcast];

(h) “dramatic work” includes any piece of recitation, choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show, the scenic arrangement or acting, form of which is fixed in writing or otherwise but does not include a cinematograph film;

10[(hh) “duplicating equipment” means any mechanical contrivance or device used or intended to be used for making copies of any work;]

(i) “engravings” include etchings, lithographs, wood-cuts, prints and other similar works, not being photographs;

(j) “exclusive licence” means a licence which confers on the licensee or on the licensee and persons authorised by him, to the exclusion of all other persons (including the owner of the copyright) any right comprised in the copyright in a work, and “exclusive licensee” shall be construed accordingly;

(k) “Government work” means a work which is made or published by or under the direction or control of—

(i) the Government or any department of the Government;

(ii) any Legislature in India;

(iii) any Court, Tribunal or other judicial authority in India;

11[(l) “Indian work” means a literary, dramatic or musical work,—

(i) the author of which is a citizen of India; or

(ii) which is first published in India; or

(iii) the author of which, in the case of an unpublished work is, at the time of the making of the work, a citizen of India;]

12[(m) “infringing copy” means,—

(i) in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, a reproduction thereof otherwise than in the form of a cinematographic film;

(ii) in relation to a cinematographic film, a copy of the film made on any medium by any means;

(iii) in relation to a sound recording, any other recording embodying the same sound recording, made by any means;

(iv) in relation to a programme or performance in which such a broadcast reproduction right or a performer’s right subsists under the provisions of this Act, the sound recording or a cinematographic film of such programme or performance,

if such reproduction, copy or sound recording is made or imported in contravention of the provisions of this Act;]

(n) “lecture” includes address, speech and sermon;

13[(o) “literary work” includes computer programmes, tables and compilations including computer 14[databases];]

13[(p) “musical work” means a work consisting of music and includes any graphical notation of such work but does not include any words or any action intended to be sung, spoken or performed with the music;]

13[(q) “performance”, in relation to performer’s right, means any visual or acoustic presentation made live by one or more performers;]

13[(qq) “performer” includes an actor, singer, musician, dancer, acrobat, juggler, conjurer, snake charmer, a person delivering a lecture or any other person who makes a performance;]

15[***]

(s) “photograph” includes photo-lithograph and any work produced by any process analogous to photography but does not include any part of a cinematograph film;

(t) “plate” includes any stereotype or other plate, stone, block, mould, matrix, transfer, negative16[,duplicating equipment] or other device used or intended to be used for printing or reproducing copies of any work, and any matrix or other appliance by which17[sound recording] for the acoustic presentation of the work are or are intended to be made;

(u) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

18[(uu) “producer”, in relation to a cinematograph film or sound recording, means a person who takes the initiative and responsibility for making the work;]

19[***]

20[***]

21[(x) “reprography” means the making of copies of a work, by photocopying or similar means;

(xx) “sound recording” means a recording of sounds from which such sounds may be produced regardless of the medium on which such recording is the method by which the sounds are produced;]

(y) “work” means any of the following works, namely:—

(i) a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work;

(ii) a cinematograph film;

(iii) a22[sound recording];

(z) “work of joint authorship” means a work produced by the collaboration of two or more authors in which the contribution of one author is not distinct from the contribution of the other author or authors;

(za) “work of sculpture” includes casts and models.

COMMENTS

Literary work: Scope

The definition of “literary work” given in section 2(o) of the Act is an inclusive definition and, therefore, not exhaustive. Its “literary work” includes tables and compilations. Dissertation is, therefore, prima facie a literary work. The expression “work” inter alia means a literary work. The word “original” does not mean that the work must be the expression of original or invented thought. Copyright Acts are not concerned with the origin of ideas, but with the expression of thoughts and in the case of “literary work” with the expression of thoughts in print or writing. The originality which is required relates to the expression of the thought but the Act does not require that the expression must be in an original or novel form, but that the work must not be copied from another work that it should originate from the author, Fateh Singh Mehta v. O.P. Singhal, AIR 1990 Raj 8.

Video tape within the definition of cinematograph film

In view of the extended definition of a cinematograph film in section 2 (f), which includes any process analogous to cinematography, the video tape had to be taken to come within the definition of cinematograph film; Entertaining Enterprises v. State of Tamil Nadu, AIR 1984 Mad 278.

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1. The word “and” omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

2. Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

3. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “architectural work of art” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

4. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “architectural work of art” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

5. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec.2, for sub-clauses (v) and (vi) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

6. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

7. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (f) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

8. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (ff) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995). Earlier clause (ff) was inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

9. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 2, for “radio-diffusion” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

10. Ins. by Act 65 of 1984 sec. 2 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984).

11. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3, for clause (l) (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

12. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (m) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

13. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

14. Subs. by Act 49 of 1999, sec. 2, for “data basis” (w.e.f. 15-1-2000).

15. Clause (r) omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

16. Ins. by Act 65 of 1984, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984).

17. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (xii), for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

18. Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

19. Clause (v) omitted by Act 23 of 1983, sec.3 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

20. Clause (w) omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

21. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (x) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

22. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

3. Meaning of publication –

1Meaning of publication –For the purposes of this Act, “publication” means making a work available to the public by issue of copies or by communicating the work to the public.

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 3, for section 3 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

4.When work not deemed to be published or performed in public-

Except in relation to infringement of copyright, a work shall not be deemed to be published or performed in public, if published, or performed in public, without the licence of the owner of the copyright.

5. When work deemed to be first published in India-

For the purposes of this Act, a work published in India shall be deemed to be first published in India, notwithstanding that it has been published simultaneously in some other country, unless such other country provides a shorter term of copyright for such work, and a work shall be deemed to be published simultaneously in India and in another country does not exceed thirty days or such other period as the Central Government may, in relation to any specified country, determine.

6. Certain disputes to be decide by Copyright Board –

1Certain disputes to be decide by Copyright Board -If any question arises,-

(a) Whether a work has been published or as to the date on which a work was published for the purposes of Chapter V, or

(b) Whether the term of copyright for any work is shorter in any other country than that provided in respect of that work under this Act, it shall be referred to the Copyright Board constituted under Section 11 whose decision thereon shall be final:

Provided that if in the opinion of the Copyright Board, the issue of copies or communication to the public referred to in Section 3 was of an insignificant nature, it shall not be deemed to be publication for the purposes of that section.

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 4, for section 6 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

7. Nationally of author were the making of unpublished work is extended over considerable period-

Where, in the case of an unpublished work the making of the work is extended over a considerable period, the author of the work shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a citizen of, or domiciled in, that country of which he was a citizen or wherein he was domiciled during any substantial part of that period.

8.Domicile of corporations –

For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall be deemed to be domiciled in India if it is incorporated under any law in force in India.

CHAPTER II – Copyright Office And Copyright Board

9.Copyright Office –

(1) There shall be established for the purposes of this Act on office to be called the Copyright Office.

(2) The Copyright Office shall be under the immediate control of the Registrar of Copyrights who shall act under the superintendence and direction of the Central Government.

(3) There shall be seal for the Copyright Office.

10. Registrar and Deputy Registrars of Copyrights –

(1) The Central Government shall appoint a Registrar of Copyrights and may appoint one or more Deputy Registrars of Copyrights.

(2) A Deputy Registrar of Copyrights shall discharge under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar of Copyrights such functions of the Registrar under this Act as the Registrar of Copyrights such functions of the Registrar under this Act as the Registrar may, from time to time, assign to him : and any reference in this Act to the Registrar of Copyrights shall include a reference to a Deputy Registrar of Copyrights when so discharging any such functions.

11. Copyright Board –

(1) As soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, the Central Government shall constitute a Board to be called the Copyright Board which shall consist of a Chairman and not less than two or more than1[fourteen] other members.

(2) The Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall hold office for such period and on such terms and conditions as may be prescribed.

(3) The Chairman of the Copyright Board shall be a person who is, or has been, a Judge of2[***] a High Court or is qualified for appointment as a Judge of High Court.

(4) The Registrar of Copyrights shall be the Secretary of the Copyright Board and shall perform such functions as may be prescribed.

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 5, for “eight” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

2. The words “the Supreme Court or” omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 5 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

12. Powers and procedure of Copyright Board-

(1) The Copyright Board shall, subject to any rules that may be under this Act, have power to regulate its own procedure, including the fixing of places and times of its sittings:

Provided that the Copyright Board shall ordinarily hear any proceeding instituted before it under this Act within the zone in which, at the time of the institution of the proceeding, the person instituting the proceeding actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally work for gain.

Explanation.-—In this sub-section “zone” means a zone specified in section 15 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 (37 of 1956).

(2) The Copyright Board may exercise and discharge its powers and functions through Benches constituted by the Chairman of the Copyright Board from amongst its members, each Bench consisting of not less than three members:

1[Provided that, if the Chairman is of opinion that any matter of importance is required to be heard by a larger Bench, he may refer the matter to a special Bench consisting of five members.]

(3) If there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Copyright Board or any Bench thereof in respect of any matter coming before it for decision under this Act, the opinion of the majority shall prevail:

2[Provided that where there is no such majority, the opinion of the Chairman shall prevail.]

(4)3[The Chairman] may authorise any of its members to exercise any of the powers conferred on it by section 74 and any order made or act done in exercise of those powers by the member so authorised shall be deemed to be the order or act, as the case may be, of the Board.

(5) No member of the Copyright Board shall take part in any proceedings before the Board in respect of any matter in which he has a personal interest.

(6) No act done or proceeding taken by the Copyright Board under this Act shall be questioned on the ground merely of the existence of any vacancy in, or defect in the constitution of, the Board.

(7) The Copyright Board shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purposes of4[sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] and all proceedings before the Board shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860).

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1. Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

2. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6, for proviso (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

3. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6, for “The Copyright Board” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

4. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 6, for “sections 480 and 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of 1898)” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

CHAPTER III – Copyright

13. Works in which copyright subsists-

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section and the other provisions of this Act, copyright shall subsist throughout India in the following classes of works, that is to say,—

(a) original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works;

(b) cinematograph films; and

(c)1[sound recording].

(2) Copyright shall not subsist in any work specified in sub-section (1), other than a work to which the provisions of section 40 or section 41 apply, unless,—

(i) in the case of a published work, the work is first published in India, or where the work is first published outside India, the author is at the date of such publication, or in a case where the author was dead at that date, was at the time of his death, a citizen of India;

(ii) in the case of an unpublished work other than2[work of architecture], the author is at the date of the making of the work a citizen of India or domiciled in India; and

(iii) in the case of2[work of architecture], the work is located in India.

Explanation.—In the case of a work of joint authorship, the conditions conferring copyright specified in this sub-section shall be satisfied by all the authors of the work.

(3) Copyright shall not subsist—

(a) in any cinematograph film if a substantial part of the film is an infringement of the copyright in any other work;

(b) in any1[sound recording] made in respect of a literary, dramatic or musical work, if in making the1[sound recording], copyright in such work has been infringed.

(4) The copyright in a cinematograph film or a1[sound recording] shall not affect the separate copyright in any work in respect of which or a substantial part of which, the film, or, as the case may be, the1[sound recording] is made.

(5) In the case of2[work of architecture], copyright shall subsist only in the artistic character and design and shall not extend to processes or methods of construction.

COMMENTS

Common property are not the subject of copyright

No doubt the central theme of the articles published by the second plaintiff and that of the drama and movie is the same, though the emphasis in the drama and the movie is more on human bondage, particularly of Indian women. The articles published by Ashwini Sarin also contain an autobiographical account of the part actually played by him in the affair. He has presented the whole affair in his own style. But that at the most would give the plaintiff copyright in respect of these articles. There cannot, however, be a copyright in an event which has actually taken place. There is a distinction between the materials upon which one claiming copyright has worked and the product of the application of his skill, judgment, labour and literary talent to these materials. Ideas, information, natural phenomena and events on which an author expends his skill, labour capital, judgment and literary talent are common property and are not the subject of copyright; Indian Express Newspapers (Bombay) Pvt. Ltd. v. Dr. Jagmohan Mundhara, AIR 1985 Bom 229.

Copyright in translation of a work

There is copyright in translation of a work; Blackwood & Sons Ltd. v. Parsuraman, AIR 1959 Mad 410.

Meaning ‘literary work’

The words ‘literary work’ cover work which is expressed in print or writing, irrespective of the question whether the quality or style is high. The word ‘literary’ seems to be used in a sense somewhat similar to the use of the word ‘literature’ in political or electioneering literature and refers to written or printed matter; University of London Press Ltd. v. University Tutorial Press Ltd., (1916) 2 ChD 601.

Original work

The syllabi issued in a circular by the Board of Secondary Education of the State, containing guidelines of authors and publishers of textbooks cannot be taken as original work being the product of labour, skill and capital of some men engaged by the Board; Nag Book House v. State of West Bengal, AIR 1982 Cal 245.

Work of cine artist and performance as an actor

The work of a cine artist, his performance as an actor in a cinematograph film does not fall within the definition of ‘‘cinematograph film’’ to be found in section 2(f), and hence, is not protected under this Act. It is the cinematograph film that enjoys protection along with its sound track; Fortune Films v. Dev Anand, AIR 1979 Bom 17.

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

2. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 , for “architectural work of art” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

14. Meaning of copyright-

1[14. Meaning of copyright.—For the purposes of this Act, “copyright” means the exclusive right subject to the provisions of this Act, to do or authorise the doing of any of the following acts in respect of a work or any substantial part thereof, namely:—

(a) in the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work, not being a computer programme,—

(i) to reproduce the work in any material form including the storing of it in any medium by electronic means;

(ii) to issue copies of the work to the public not being copies already in circulation;

(iii) to perform the work in public, or communicate it to the public;

(iv) to make any cinematograph film or sound recording in respect of the work;

(v) to make any translation of the work;

(vi) to make any adaptation of the work;

(vii) to do, in relation to a translation or an adaptation of the work, any of the acts specified in relation to the work in sub-clauses (i) to (vi);

(b) in the case of a computer programme,—

(i) to do any of the acts specified in clause (a);

2[(ii) to sell or give on commercial rental or offer for sale or for commercial rental any copy of the computer programme:

Provided that such commercial rental does not apply in respect of computer programmes where the programme itself is not the essential object of the rental.]

(c) in the case of an artistic work,—

(i) to reproduce the work in any material form including depiction in three dimensions of a two dimensional work or in two dimensions of a three dimensional work;

(ii) to communicate the work to the public;

(iii) to issue copies of the work to the public not being copies already in circulation;

(iv) to include the work in any cinematograph film;

(v) to make any adaptation of the work;

(vi) to do in relation to an adaptation of the work any of the acts specified in relation to the work in sub-clauses (i) to (iv);

(d) in the case of a cinematograph film,—

(i) to make a copy of the film including a photograph of any image forming part thereof;

(ii) to sell or give on hire or offer for sale or hire, any copy of the film, regardless of whether such copy has been sold or given on hire on earlier occasions;

(iii) to communicate the film to the public;

(e) in the case of a sound recording,—

(i) to make any other sound recording embodying it;

(ii) to sell or give on hire, or offer for sale or hire, any copy of the sound recording, regardless of whether such copy has been sold or given on hire on earlier occasions;

(iii) to communicate the sound recording to the public.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, a copy which has been sold once shall be deemed to be a copy already in circulation.]

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 7, for section 14 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

2. Subs. by Act 49 of 1999, sec. 3, for sub-clause (ii) (w.e.f. 15-1-2000).

15. Special provision regarding copyright in designs registered or capable of being registered under the Designs Act, 1911.-

15. Special provision regarding copyright in designs registered or capable of being registered under the1[***] Designs Act, 1911. —(1) Copyright shall not subsist under this Act in any design which is registered under the1[***] Designs Act, 1911 (2 of 1911)2.

(2) Copyright in any design, which is capable of being registered under the1[***] Designs Act, 1911 (2 of 1911)2, but which has not been so registered, shall cease as soon as any article to which the design has been applied has been reproduced more than fifty times by an industrial process by the owner of the copyright, or, with his licence, by any other person.

———–

1.The words “Indian Patents and” omitted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 7 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2.See now the Designs Act, 2000 ( 16 of 2000).

16. No copyright except as provided in this Act-

No person shall be entitled to copyright or any similar right in any work, whether published or unpublished, otherwise than under and in accordance with the provisions of this Act or of any other law for the time being in force, but nothing in this section shall be construed as abrogating any right or jurisdiction to restrain a breach of trust or confidence.

CHAPTER IV – Ownership of Copyright and the Rights of the Owner

The Copyright Act, 19571

17. First owner of copyright –

Subject to the provisions of this Act, the author of a work shall be the first owner of the copyright therein:

Provided that—

(a) in the case of a literary, dramatic or artistic work made by the author in the course of his employment by the proprietor of a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical under a contract of service or apprenticeship, for the purpose of publication in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, the said proprietor shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright in the work in so far as the copyright relates to the publication of the work in any newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, or to the reproduction of the work for the purpose of its being so published, but in all other respects the author shall be the first owner of the copyright in the work;

(b) subject to the provisions of clause (a), in the case of a photograph taken, or a painting or portrait drawn, or an engraving or a cinematograph film made, for valuable consideration at the instance of any person, such person shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

(c) in the case of a work made in the course of the author’s employment under a contract of service or apprenticeship, to which clause (a) or clause (b) does not apply, the employer shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

2[(cc) in the case of any address or speech delivered in public, the person who has delivered such address or speech or if such person has delivered such address or speech on behalf of any other person, such other person shall be the first owner of the copyright therein notwithstanding that the person who delivers such address or speech, or, as the case may be, the person on whose behalf such address or speech is delivered, is employed by any other person who arranges such address or speech or on whose behalf or premises such address or speech is delivered;]

(d) in the case of a Government work, Government shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

2[(dd) in the case of a work made or first published by or under the direction or control of any public undertaking, such public undertaking shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause and section 28A, “public undertaking” means—

(i) an undertaking owned or controlled by Government; or

(ii) a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

(iii) a body corporate established by or under any Central, Provincial or State Act;]

(e) in the case of a work to which the provisions of section 41 apply, the international organisation concerned shall be the first owner of the copyright therein.

COMMENTS

No ownership in case of mere ‘idea’

A person may have a brilliant idea for a story, or for a picture, or for a play, and one which, so far as he is concerned, appears to be original, but, if he communicates that idea to an author or a playwriter or an artist, the production which is the result of the communication of the idea to the author or the artist or the playwright is the copyright of the person who has clothed the idea in a form, whether by means of a picture, a play, or a book, and the owner of the idea has no rights in the product; Donoghue v. Allied Newspaper Ltd., (1937) 3 ChD 503.

Producer can defeat rights of music composer or lyricist

The core of the question, whether the producer of a cinematograph film can defeat the right of the composer of music or lyricist by engaging him. The key to the solution of this question lies in the provisos (b) and (c) to section 17 of the Act reproduced

above which put the matter beyond doubt. According to the first of these provisos, viz., proviso (b), when a cinematograph film producer commissions a composer of music or a lyricist for reward or valuable consideration for the purpose of making his cinematograph film, or composing music or lyric therefor i.e., the sounds for incorporation or absorption in the sound track associated with the film, which as already indicated, are included in a cinematograph film, he becomes the first owner of the copyright therein and no copyright subsists in the composer of the lyric or music so composed unless there is a contract to the contrary between the composer of the lyric or music on the one hand and the producer of the cinematograph film on the other. The same result follows according to aforesaid proviso (c) if the composer of music or lyric is employed under a contract of service or apprenticeship to compose the work. It is, therefore, crystal clear that the rights of a music composer or lyricist can be defeated by the producer of a cinematograph film in the manner laid down in provisos (b) and (c) of section 17 of the Act; Indian Performing Right Society v. Eastern India Motion Picture Assn, AIR 1977 SC 1443.

Right in a drama vests in author

The right in a drama by an author written for a society, is, in the absence of a clear agreement to the contrary, vested in the author; Lama Prasad v. Nabahash, AIR 1967 Ass 70.

Valuable consideration

Where a person is under an obligation to do something, and in discharge of such obligation, he transfers a certain interest, such transfer is for valuable consideration; Chidambaraiyer v. Renga, AIR 1966 SC 193.

———

1. Subs. by Act 15 of 2008, sec. 2, for sec. 8 (w.e.f. 15-4-2008). Section 8, before substitution, stood as under:

“8. Payment of medical bonus.—Every woman entitled to maternity benefit under this Act shall also be entitled to receive from her employer a medical bonus of two hundred and fifty rupees, if no pre-natal confinement and post-natal care is provided for by the employer free of charge.”.

2. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 8 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

18. Assignment of copyright –

(1) The owner of the copyright in an existing work or the prospective owner of the copyright in a future work may assign to any person the copyright either wholly or partially and either generally or subject to limitations and either for the whole term of the copyright or any part thereof.

Provided that in the case of the assignment of copyright in any future work, the assignment shall take effect only when the work comes into existence.

(2) Whereas the assignee of a copyright becomes entitled to any right comprised in the copyright, the assignee as respects the rights to assigned, and the assignor as respects the rights not assigned, shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as the owner of copyright and the provisions of this Act shall have effect accordingly.

(3) In this section, the expression, “assignee” as respects the assignment of the copyright in any future work includes the legal representatives of the assignee, if the assignee dies before the work comes into existence.

COMMENTS

(i) A mere agreement to assign does not operate to pass the property right but gives equitable rights, i.e., it operates as an equitable assignment of copyright as and when the work comes into existence; Reoti Saran Sharma v. Numero Uno International, 1995 PTR 132.

(ii) Where there is substantial similarity and the other party has no evidence to rebute the same in his favour, then there is infringement of copyright; Godrej Soaps (P) Ltd. v. Dora Cosmetics Co., 2001 PTC 407 (Del).

19. Mode of assignment –

1(1)] No assignment of the copyright in any work shall be valid unless it is in writing signed by the assignor or his duly authorised agent.

2[3(2)The assignment of copyright in nay work shall identify such work, and shall specify the rights assigned and the duration and territorial extent of such assignment.

(3) The assignment of copyright in any work shall also specify the amount of royalty payable, if any, to the author or his legal heirs during the currency of the assignment and the assignment shall be subject to revision, extension or termination on terms mutually agreed upon by the parties.

(4) Where the assignee does not exercise the rights assigned to him under any of the other sub sections of this section within a period of one year from the date of assignment, the assignment in respect of such rights shall be deemed to have lapsed after the expiry of the said period unless otherwise specified in the assignment.

(5) If the period of assignment is not stated, it shall be deemed to be five years from the date of assignment.

(6) If the territorial extent of assignment of the rights is not specified, it shall be presumed to extend within India.

(7) Nothing in sub section (2) or sub section (3) or sub section (4) or sub section (5) or sub section (6) shall be applicable to assignments made before the coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994.]

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1. Section 19 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2. Sub-section (2) ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

3. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 8, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 10-9-1995).

19-A. Dispute with respect to assignment of copyright –

1[19A. Disputes with respect to assignment of copyright.—(1) If an assignee fails to make sufficient exercise of the rights assigned to him, and such failure is not attributable to any act or omission of the assignor, then, the Copyright Board may, on receipt of a complaint from the assignor and after holding such inquiry as it may deem necessary, revoke such assignment.

(2) If any dispute arises with respect to the assignment of any copyright, the Copyright Board may, on receipt of a complaint from the aggrieved party and after holding such inquiry as it considers necessary, pass such order as it may deem fit including an order for the recovery of any royalty payable:

Provided that Copyright Board shall not pass any order under this sub-section to revoke the assignment unless it is satisfied that the terms of assignment are harsh to the assignor in case the assignor is also the author:

Provided further that no order of revocation of assignment under this sub-section, shall be made within a period of five years from the date of such assignment.]

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 9, for section 19A (w.e.f. 10-5-1995). Earlier section 19A was inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 10 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

20. Transmission of copyright in manuscript by testamentary disposition –

Where under a bequest a person is entitled to the manuscript of a literary, dramatic or musical work, or to an artistic work, and the work was not published before the death of the testator, the bequest shall, unless the contrary intention is indicated in the testator’s will or any codicil thereto, be construed as including the copyright in the work in so far as the testator was the owner of the copyright immediately before his death.

Explanation- In this section, the expression “manuscript” means the original document embodying the work, whether written by hand or not.

21. Right of author to relinquish copyright –

(1) The author of a work may relinquish all or any of the rights comprised in the copyright in the work by giving notice in the prescribed form to the Registrar of Copyrights and thereupon such rights shall, subject to the provision of sub section (3), cease to exist from the date of the notice.

(2) On receipt of a notice under sub section (1), the Registrar of Copyrights shall cause it to be published in the Official Gazette and in such other manner, as he may deem fit.

(3) The relinquishment of all or any of the rights comprised in the copyright in a work shall not affect any rights subsisting in favour of any person on the date of the notice referred to in sub section. (1).

CHAPTER V – Term of Copyright

22. Term of copyright in published literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works –

Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, copyright shall subsist in any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (other than a photograph) published within the lifetime of the author until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the author dies.

Explanation.—In this section the reference to the author shall, in the case of a work of joint authorship, be construed as a reference to the author who dies last.

COMMENTS

Subsistence of copyrigh tby virtue of section 22, the copyright in the work of grandfather could not subsist 50 years after his death; Khemraj v. Garg & Co., AIR 1975 Del 130.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991).

23. Term of copyright in anonymous and pseudonymous works –

(1) In the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (other than a photograph), which is published anonymously or pseudonymously, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published:

Provided that where the identity of the author is disclosed before the expiry of the said period, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year following the year in which the author dies.

(2) In sub-section (1), references to the author shall, in the case of an anonymous work of joint authorship, be construed,—

(a) where the identity of one of the authors is disclosed, as references to that author;

(b) where the identity of more authors than one is disclosed, as references to the author who dies last from amongst such authors.

(3) In sub-section (1), references to the author shall, in the case of a pseudonymous work of joint authorship, be construed,—

(a) where the names of one or more (but not all) of the authors are pseudonymous and his or their identity is not disclosed, as references to the author whose name is not a pseudonym, or, if the names of two or more of the authors are not pseudonyms, as references to such of those authors who dies last;

(b) where the names of one or more (but not all) of the authors are pseudonyms and the identity of one or more of them is disclosed, as references to the author who dies last from amongst the authors whose names are not pseudonyms and the authors whose names are pseudonyms and are disclosed; and

(c) where the names of all the authors are pseudonyms and the identity of one of them is disclosed, as references to the author whose identity is disclosed or if the identity of two or more of such authors is disclosed, as references to such of those authors who dies last.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the identity of an author shall be deemed to have been disclosed, if either the identity of the author is disclosed publicly by both the author and the publisher or is otherwise established to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board by that author.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991).

24. Term of copyright in posthumous works –

(1) In the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work or an engraving, in which copyright subsists at the date of the death of the author, or in the case of any such work of joint authorship, at or immediately before the date of the death of the author who dies last, but which, or any adaptation of which, has not been published before that date, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published or, where an adaptation of the work is published in any earlier year, from the beginning of the calendar year next following that year.

(2) For the purposes of this section a literary, dramatic or musical work or an adaptation of any such work shall be deemed to have been published, if it has been performed in public or if any2[sound recording] made in respect of the work have been sold to the public or have been offered for sale to the public.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

2. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

25. Term of copyright in photographs –

In the case of a photograph, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the photograph is published.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

26. Term of copyright in cinematograph films-

In the case of a cinematograph film, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the film is published.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

27. Term of copyright in sound recordings –

27. Term of copyright in2[sound recording].—In the case a2[sound recording] copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the2[sound recording] is published.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

2.Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

28. Term of copyright in Government works –

In the case of Government work, where Government is the first owner of the copyright therein, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the record is first published.

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1.Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

28-A. Term of copyright in works of public undertakings-

1[28A. Term of copyright in works of public undertakings.—In the case of a work, where a public undertaking is the first owner of the copyright therein, copyright shall subsist until2[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar years next following the year in which the work is first published.]

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1. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 11 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

29. Term of copyright in works of international organisation-

In the case of a work of any international organisation to which the provisions of section 41 apply, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published.

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1. Subs. by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for “fifty years” (w.r. e.f. 28-12-1991).

CHAPTER VI – Licences

30. Licences by owners of copyright-

The owner of the copyright in any existing work or the prospective owner of the copyright in any future work may grant any interest in the right by licence in writing signed by him or by his duly authorised agent.

Provided that in the case of a licence relating to copyright in any future work, the licence shall take effect only when the work comes into existence.

Explanation– When a person to whom a licence relating to copyright in any future work is granted under this section dies before the work comes into existence, his legal representatives shall, in the absence of any provision to the contrary in the licence , be entitled to benefit of the licence.

30-A. Application of Sections 19 and 19-A. –

The provision of Sections 19 and 19-A shall, with any necessary adaptations and modifications, apply in relation to a licence under Section 30 as they apply in relation to assignment of copyright in a work.

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1. Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 10 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

31. Compulsory licence in works with held from public –

(1) If at any time during the term of copyright in any Indian work which has been published or performed in public, a complaint is made to the Copyright Board that the owner of copyright in the work—

(a) has refused to re-publish or allow the re-publication of the work or has refused to allow the performance in public of the work, and by reason of such refusal the work is withheld from the public; or

(b) has refused to allow communication to the public by1[broadcast], of such work or in the case of a2[sound recording] the work recorded in such2[sound recording], on terms which the complainant considers reasonable,

the Copyright Board, after giving to the owner of the copyright in the work a reasonable opportunity of being heard and after holding such inquiry as it may deem necessary, may, if it is satisfied that the grounds for such refusal are not reasonable, direct the Registrar of Copyrights to grant to the complainant a licence to re-publish the work, perform the work in public or communicate the work to the public by1[broadcast], as the case may be, subject to payment to the owner of the copyright of such compensation and subject to such other terms and conditions as the Copyright Board may determine; and thereupon the Registrar of Copyrights shall grant the licence to the complainant in accordance with the directions of Copyright Board, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

Explanation.—In this sub-section, the expression “Indian work” includes—

(i) an artistic work, the author of which is a citizen of India; and

(ii) a cinematograph film or a 2[sound recording] made or manufactured in India.

(2) Where two or more persons have made a complaint under sub-section (1), the licence shall be granted to the complainant who in the opinion of the Copyright Board would best serve the interests of the general public.

Comments

Question of grant of compulsory licence would arise only when the artistic work has been with held from public. Compulsory licence need not be issued to all who apply and are ready to pay fee; Super Cassette Industries Ltd. v. Entertainment Network (India) Ltd., AIR 2004 Del 326.

Once a Copyright is taken in public domain then it becomes commercial right and refusal to grant licence has to be on reasonable grounds. While making orders, the Board has to maintain a delicate balance between private rights of the copyright owner vis-a-vis public interest; Super Cassette Industries Ltd. v. Entertainment Network (India) Ltd., AIR 2004 Del 326.

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1. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 2, for “radio-diffusion” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for “record” (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

31-A. Compulsory licence in unpublished Indian works-

(1) Where in the case of an Indian work referred to in sub clause (iii) of clause (I) of Section 2, the author is dead or unknown or cannot be traced, or the owner of the copyright in such work cannot be found, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to publish such work or a translation thereof in any language.

(2) Before making an application under sub section (1), the applicants shall publish his proposal in one issue of a daily newspaper in the English language having circulation in the major part of thee country and where the application is for the publication of a translation in any language, also in one issue of any daily newspaper in that language.

(3) Every such application shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall be accompanied with a copy of the advertisement issued under sub section (2) and such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, direct the Registrar of Copyrights to grant to the applicant a licence to publish the work or a translation thereof, in the language mentioned in the application subject to the payment of such royalty and subject to such other terms and conditions as the Copyright Board may determine, and thereupon the Registrar of Copyrights shall grant the licence to the applicant in accordance with the direction of the copyright Board.

(5) Where a licence is granted under this section, the Registrar of Copyrights may, by order, direct the applicant to deposit the amount of the royalty determined by the Copyright Board in the public account of India or in any other account specified by the Copyright Board so as to enable the owner of the copyright or, as the case may be, his heirs, executors or the legal representatives to claim such royalty at any time.

(6) Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of this section, in the case of a work referred to in sub section (1), if the original author is dead, the Central Government may, if it considers that the publication of the work is desirable in the national interest, require the heirs, executors or legal representatives of the author to publish such work such period as may be specified by it.

(7) Where any work is not published within the period specified by the Central Government under sub section (6), the Copyright Board may, on an application made by any person for permission to publish the work and after hearing the parties concerned, permit such publication on payment of such royalty as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of such case, determine in the prescribed manner.

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1. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 12 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

32. Licence to produce and publish translations-

(1) Any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish a translation of a literary or dramatic work in any language1[after a period of seven years from the first publication of the work].

1[(1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish a translation, in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, of a literary or dramatic work, other than an Indian work, in any language in general use in India after a period of three years from the first publication of such work, if such translation is required for the purposes of teaching, scholarship or research:

Provided that where such translation is in a language not in general use in any developed country, such application may be made after a period of one year from such publication.]

(2) Every2[application under this section] shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall state the proposed retail price of a copy of the translation of the work.

(3) Every applicant for a licence under this section shall, along with his application, deposit with the Registrar of Copyrights such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, grant to the applicant a licence, not being an exclusive licence, to produce and publish a translation of the work in the language mentioned in3[the application—

(i) subject to the condition that the applicant shall pay to the owner of the copyright in the work royalties in respect of copies of the translation of the work sold to the public, calculated at such rate as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of each case, determine in the prescribed manner; and

(ii) where such licence is granted on an application under sub-section(1A), subject also to the condition that the licence shall not extend to the export of copies of the translation of the work outside India and every copy of such translation shall contain a notice in the language of such translation that the copy is available for distribution only in India:

Provided that nothing in clause (ii) shall apply to export by Government or any authority under the Government of copies of such translation in a language other than English, French or Spanish in any country if—

(1) such copies are sent to citizens of India residing outside India or to any association of such citizens outside India; or

(2) such copies are meant to be used for purposes of teaching, scholarship or research and not for any commercial purpose; and

(3) in either case, the permission for such export has been given by the Government of that country:]

4[Provided further that no licence under this section] shall be granted, unless—

(a) a translation of the work in the language mentioned in the application has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him,5[within seven years or three years or one year, as the case may be, of the first publication of the work], or if a translation has been so published, it has been out of print;

(b) the applicant has proved to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board that he had requested and had been denied authorisation by the owner of the copyright to produce and publish such translation, or that6[he was, after due diligence on his part, unable to find] the owner of the copyright;

(c) where the applicant was unable to find the owner of the copyright, he had sent a copy of his request for7[such authorisation by registered air mail post to the publisher whose name appears from the work, and in the case of an application for a licence under sub-section (1)], not less than two months before8[such application];

9[(cc) a period of six months in the case of an application under sub-section (1A) (not being an application under the proviso thereto), or nine months in the case of an application under the proviso to that sub-section, has elapsed from the date of making the request under clause (b) of this proviso or where a copy of the request has been sent under clause (c) of this proviso, from the date of sending of such copy, and the translation of the work in the language mentioned in the application has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him within the said period of six months or nine months, as the case may be;

(ccc) in the case of any application made under sub-section (1A),—

(i) the name of the author and the title of the particular edition of the work proposed to be translated are printed on all the copies of the translation;

(ii) if the work is composed mainly of illustrations, the provisions of section 32A are also complied with;]

(d) the Copyright Board is satisfied that the applicant is competent to produce and publish a correct translation of the work and possesses the means to pay to the owner of the copyright the royalties payable to him under this section;

(e) the author has not withdrawn from circulation copies of the work; and

(f) an opportunity of being heard is given, wherever practicable, to the owner of the copyright in the work.

9[(5) Any broadcasting authority may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish the translation of—

(a) a work referred to in sub-section (1A) and published in printed or analogous forms of reproduction;or

(b) any text incorporated in audio-visual fixations prepared and published solely for the purpose of systematic instructional activities,

for broadcasting such translation for the purposes of teaching or for the dissemination of the results of specialised, technical or scientific research to the experts in any particular field.

(6) The provisions of sub-sections (2) to (4) in so far as they are relatable to an application under sub-section (1A), shall, with the necessary modifications, apply to the grant of a licence under sub-section (5) and such licence shall not also be granted unless—

(a) the translation is made from a work lawfully acquired;

(b) the broadcast is made through the medium of sound and visual recordings;

(c) such recording has been lawfully and exclusively made for the purpose of broadcasting in India by the applicant or by other broadcasting agency; and

(d) the translation and the broadcasting of such translation are not used for any commercial purposes.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) “developed country” means a country which is not a developing country;

(b) “developing country” means a country which is for the time being regarded as such in conformity with the practice of the General Assembly of the United Nations;

(c) “purposes of research” does not include purposes of industrial research, or purposes of research by bodies corporate (not being bodies corporate owned or controlled by Government) or other association or body of persons for commercial purposes;

(d) “purposes of teaching, research or scholarship” includes—

(i) purposes of instructional activity at all levels in educational institutions, including Schools, Colleges, Universities and tutorial institutions; and

(ii) purposes of all other types of organised educational activity.]

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1. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “such application” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

3. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for certain words (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

4. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “Provided that no such licence” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

5. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “within seven years of the first publication of the work” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

6. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “he was unable to find” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

7. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “ such authorisation to the publisher whose name appears from the work” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

8. Subs. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13, for “the application for the licence” (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

9. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 13 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

32-A. Licence to reproduce and publish works for certain purposes-

(1) Where, after the expiration of the relevant period from the date of the first publication of an edition of a literary, scientific or artistic work,-

(a) The copies of such edition are not made available in India; or

(b) Such copies have not been put on sale in India for a period of six months.

To the general public or in connection with systematic instructional activities at a price reasonably related to that normally charged in India for comparable works by the owner of the right of reproduction or by any person authorised by him in this behalf, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to reproduce and publish such work in printed or analogous forms of reproduction at the price at which such edition is sold or at a lower price for the purposes of systematic instructional activities.

(2) Every such application shall be made in such forms as may be prescribed and shall state the proposed retail price of a copy of the work to be reproduced.

(3) Every applicant for a licence under this section shall, along with his application, deposit with the Registrar of Copyrights such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, grant to the applicant a licence, not being an exclusive licence, to produce and publish a reproduction of the work mentioned in the application subject to the condition that ,-

(a) The applicant shall pay to the owner of the copyright in the work royalties in respect of copies of the reproduction of the work sold to the public, calculated at such rate as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of each case, determine in the prescribed manner.

(b) A licence granted under this section shall not extend to the export of copies of the reproduction of the work outside India and every copy of such reproduction shall contain a notice that the copy is available for distribution only in India.

Provided that no such licence shall be granted unless-

(a) The applicant has proved to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board that he had requested and had been denied authorisation by the owner of the copyright in the work to reproduce and publish such work to that he was, after due diligence on his part, unable to find such owner.

(b) Where the applicant was unable to find the owner of the Copyright, he had sent a copy of his request for such authorisation by registered airmail post to the publisher whose name appears from the work not less than three months before the application for the licence.

(c) The Copyright Board is satisfied that the applicant is competent to reproduce and publish an accurate reproduction of the work and possesses the means to pay to the owner of the copyright the royalties payable to him under this section.

(d) The applicant undertakes to reproduce and publish the work at such price as may be fixed by the Copyright Board, being a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for works of the same standard on the same or similar subjects;

(e) A period of six months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any work of natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology, or a period of three months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any other work, has elapsed from the date of making the request under clause (a), or where a copy of the request has been sent under clause (b), from the date of sending of a copy, and a reproduction of the work has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him within the said period of six months or, three months, as the case may be;

(f) The name of the author and the title of the particular edition of the work proposed to be reproduced are printed on all the copies of the reproduction;

(g) The author has not withdrawn from circulation copies of the work; and

(h) An opportunity of being heard is given, wherever practicable, to the owner of the copyright in the work.

(5) No licence to reproduce and publish the translation of a work shall be granted under this section unless such translation has been published by the owner of the right of translation or any person authorised by him and the translation is not in a language in general use in India.

(6) The provisions of this section shall also apply to the reproduction and publication, or translation into a language in general use in India, of any text incorporated in audio-visual fixation prepared and published solely for the purpose of systematic instructional activities.

Explanation – For the purposes of this section, “relevant period” in relation to any work, means a period of-

(a) Seven years from the date of the first publication of that work, where the application is for the reproduction and publication of any work of , or relating to fiction, poetry, drama, music or art.

(b) Three years from the dare of the first publication of that work, where the application is for the reproduction and publication of any work of, or relating to, natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology, and

(c) Five years from the date of the first publication of that work, in any other case.

32.B. Termination of licences issued under this Chapter-

(1) If, at nay time after the granting of a licence to produce and publish the translation of a work in any language under sub section (1-A) of section 32 (hereafter in this sub section referred to as the licensed work) , the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him publishes a translation of such work in the same language and which is substantially the same in content at a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for the translation of works of the same standard on the same or similar subject, the licence so granted shall be terminated.

Provided that no such termination shall take effect until after expiry of a period of three months from the date of service of a notice in the prescribed manner on the person holding such licence by the owner of the right of translation intimation the publication of the translation as aforesaid.

Provided further that copies of the licensed work produced and published by the person holding such licence before the termination of the licence takes effect may continue to be sold or distributed until the copies already produced and published are exhausted.

(2), If , at any time after the granting of a licence to produce and publish the reproduction or translation of any work under section 32-A, the owner of the right of reproduction or any person authorised by him sells or distributes copies of such work or a translation thereof, as the case may be, in the same language and which is substantially the same in content at a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India or works of the same standard on the same or similar subject, the licence so granted shall be terminated.

Provided that no such termination shall take effect until after the expiry of a period of three months from the date of service of a notice in the prescribed manner on the person holding the licence by the owner of the right of reproduction intimating the sale or distribution of the copies of the editions of work as aforesaid.

Provided further that any copies already reproduced by the licensee before such termination takes effect continue to be sold or distributed until the copies already produced are exhausted.

———————————–

1. Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 14 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

CHAPTER VII – Copyright Societies

33. Registration of copyright society-

(1) No person or association of persons shall, after coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994 commence or, carry on the business of issuing or granting licences in respect of any work in which copyright subsists or in respect of any other rights conferred by this Act except under or in accordance with the registration granted under sub section (3):

Provided that an owner of copyright shall, in this individual capacity, continue to have the right to grant licences in respect of his own works consistent with his obligations as a member of the registered copyright society.

Provided further that a performing rights society functioning in accordance with the provisions of Section 33 on the date immediately before the coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994 shall be deemed to be a copyright society for the purposes of this Chapter and every such society shall get itself registered within a period one year from the date of commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994.

(2) Any association of persons which fulfils such conditions as may be prescribed may apply for permission to do the business specified in sub section (1) to the Registrar of Copyrights who shall submit the application to the Central Government.

(3) The Central Government may, having regard to the interest of the authors and other owner of rights under this Act, the interest and convenience of the public and in particular of the groups of persons who are most likely to seek licences in applicants, register such association of persons as a copyright society to such conditions as may be prescribed.

Provided that the Central Government shall not ordinarily register more than one copyright society to do business in respect of the same class of works.

(4) The Central Government may, if it is satisfied that a copyright society is being managed in a manner detrimental to the interest of the owners of rights concerned, cancel the registration of such society after such inquiry as may be prescribed.

(5) If the Central Government is of the opinion that in the interest of the owners of rights concerned, it is necessary so to do, it may, by order, suspend the registration of such society pending inquiry for such period not exceeding one year as may be specified in such order under sub section (4) and that Government shall appoint and administrator to discharge the functions of the copyright society.

———————–

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

34. Administration of rights of owner by copyright society –

(1) Subject to such conditions as may be prescribed,-

(a), a copyright society may accept from an owner of rights exclusive authorisation to administer any right in any work by issue of licences or collection of licence fees or both, and

(b) an owner of rights shall have the right to withdraw such authorisation without prejudice to the rights of the copyright society under any contract.

(2) It shall be competent for a copyright society ot enter into agreement with any foreign society or organisation administering rights corresponding to rights under this Act, to entrust to such foreign society or organisation the administration in any foreign country of rights administered by the said copyright society in India, or for administering in India the rights administered in a foreign society or organisation the administration in any foreign country of rights administered by the said copyright society in India, or for administering in India the rights administered in a foreign country by such foreign society or organisation.

Provided that no such society or organisation shall permit any discrimination in regard to the terms of licence or the distribution of fees collected between rights in Indian and other works.

(3) Subject to such conditions as may be prescribed, a copyright society may –

(i) Issue licences under Section 30 in respect of any rights under this Act,

(ii) Collect fees in pursuance of such licences,

(iii) Distribute such fees among owners of rights after making deductions for its own expenses,

(iv) Perform any other functions consistent with the provisions of Section 35.

———————-

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

34-A. Payment of remunerations by copyright society –

(1) If the Central Government is of the opinion that a copyright society for a class of work is generally administering the rights of the owners of rights in such work throughout India, it shall appoint that society for the purposes of this section.

(2) The copyright society shall, subject to such rules as may be made in this behalf, frame a scheme for determining the quantum of remuneration payable to individual copyright owners having regard to the number of copies of the work is circulation:

Provided that such scheme shall restrict payment to the owners of rights whose works have attained a level of circulation which the copyright society considers reasonable.

———————

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

35. Control over the copyright society by the owner of rights –

*[35. Control over the copyright society by the owner of rights.—(1) Every copyright society shall be subject to the collective control of the owners of rights under this Act whose rights it administers (not being owners of rights under this Act administered by a foreign society or organisation referred to in sub-section (2) of section 34) and shall, in such manner as may be prescribed,—

(a) obtain the approval of such owners of rights for its procedures of collection and distribution of fees;

(b) obtain their approval for the utilisation of any amounts collected as fees for any purpose other than distribution to the owner of rights; and

(c) provide to such owners regular, full and detailed information concerning all its activities, in relation to the administration of their rights.

(2) All fees distributed among the owners of rights shall, as far as may be, be distributed in proportion to the actual use of their works.]

———————–

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

36. Submission of returns and reports –

(1) Every copyright society shall submit to the Registrar if Copyright such returns as may be prescribed.

(2) Any officer duly authorised by the Central Government in this behalf may call for any report and also call for any record of any copyright society for the purpose of satisfying himself that the fees collected by the society in respect of rights administered by it are being utilised or distributed in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

—————-

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

36-A. Rights and liabilities of performing rights societies –

*[36A. Rights and liabilities of performing rights societies.—Nothing in this Chapter shall affect any rights or liabilities in any work in connection with a performing rights society which had accrued or were incurred on or before the day prior to the commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994, or any legal proceedings in respect of any such rights or liabilities pending on that day.]

———————–

* Chapter VII (containing sections 33, 34, 34A, 35, 36 and 36A) subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 11, for Chapter VII (containing sections 33 to 36) (w.e.f. 10-5-1995)

CHAPTER VIII – Rights of Broadcasting Organisation and of Performers

37. Broadcast reproduction right –

(1) Every broadcasting organistaon shall have a special right to the know as ‘broadcast reproduction right” in respect of its broadcasts.

(2) The broadcast reproduction right shall subsist until twenty five years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the broadcast in made.

(3) During the continuance of a broadcast reproduction right in relation to an broadcast, any person who, without the licence of the owner of the right does nay of the following acts of the broadcast or any substantial part thereof,-

(a) Rebroadcasts the broadcast, or

(b) Causes the broadcasts to be heard or seen by the public on payment of any charges, or

(c) Makes any sound recording or visual recording of the broadcast, or

(d) Makes any reproduction of such sound recording or visual recording where such initial recording was done without licence or, where it was licence, for any purposes not envisaged by such licence, or

(e) Sells or heirs to the public, or offers for such sale or hire, any such sound recording or visual recording referred to in clause (C) or clause (d), shall, subject to the provisions of Section 39, be deemed to have infringed broadcast reproduction right.

38. Performer’s right –

(1) Where any performer appears or engages in any performance, he shall have a special right to be known as the “performer’s right” in relation to such performance.

(2) The performer’s right shall subsist until twenty-five years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the performance is made.

(3) During the continuance of performer’s right in relation to any performance, any person who, without the consent of the performer, does any of the following acts in respect of the performance or any substantial part thereof, namely;-

(a) Makes a sound recording or visual recording of the performance, or

(b) Reproduces a sound recording or visual recording of the performance, which sound recording or visual recording was-

(c) Made without the performer’s consent, or

(i) Made for purposes different from those for which the performer gave his consent, or

(ii) Made for purposes different from those referred to in Section 39 from a sound recording or visual recording which was made in accordance with Section 39, or

(a) Broadcasts the performance except where the broadcast is made from a sound recording or visual recording other than one made in accordance with Section 39, or is a rebroadcast by the same broadcasting organisation of an earlier broadcast which did not infringe the performer’s right, or

(b) Communicates the performance to the public otherwise than by broadcast, except where such communication to the public is made from a sound recording or visual recording or a broadcast.

Shall, subject to the provisions of section 39, be deemed to have infringed the performer’s right.

(4) Once a performer has consented to the incorporation of his performance in a cinematograph film, the provision of sub sections (1), (2) and (3) shall have no further application to such performance.

39. Acts not infringing broadcast reproduction right or performer’s right-

No broadcast reproduction right or performer’s right shall be deemed to be infringed by-

(a) The making of any sound recording or visual recording for the private use of the person making such recording, or solely for purposes of bona fide teaching or research, or

(b) The use, consistent with fair dealing, of excepts of a performance or of a broadcast in the reporting of current events or for bona fide review, teaching or research, or

(c) Such other acts, with any necessary adaptations and modifications, which do not constitute infringement of copyright under Section 52.

—————————–

1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 15, for section 39 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

39-A. Other provisions applying to broadcast reproduction right and performer’s right –

Sections 18, 19, 30, 53, 55, 58, 64, 65 and 66 shall, with any necessary adaptations and modifications, apply in relation to the broadcast reproduction right in any broadcast and the performer’s right in any performance as they apply in relation to copyright in a work.

Provided that where copyright or performer’s right subsists in respect of any work or performance that has been broadcast, no licence to reproduce such broadcast shall take effect without the consent of the owner of rights or performer, as the case may be, or both of them.

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1. Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 15, for section 39 (w.e.f. 10-5-1995).

CHAPTER IX – International Copyright

40. Power to extend copyright to foreign works-

The Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, direct that all or any provisions of this Act, shall apply.

(a) To work first published in any territory outside India to which the order related in like manner as if they were first published within India,

(b) To unpublished works, or any class thereof, the authors whereof were at the time of the making of the work, subjects or citizens of a foreign country to which the order relates, in like manner as if the authors were citizens of India.

(c) In respect of domicile in any territory outside India to which the order relates in like manner as if such domicile were in India

(d) To any work of which the author was at the date of the first publication thereof, or, in case where the author was dead at the date, was at the time of his death, a subject or citizens of foreign country to which the order relates in like manner as if the author was a citizen of India at that date or time.

And thereupon, subject to the provisions of this Chapter and of the order, this Act shall apply accordingly.

Provided that –

(i) Before making an order under this section in respect of any foreign country (other than a country with which India has entered into a treaty or which is a party to a convention relating to copying to which India is also a party, the Central Government shall be satisfied that foreign country has made, or has undertaken to make, such provision, if any, as it appears to the Central Government expedient to require for the protection in that country of works entitled to copyright under the provisions of this Act,

(ii) The order may provide that the provisions of this Act shall apply either generally or in relation to such classes of works or such classes of case may be specified in the order.

(iii) The order may provide that the term of copyright in India shall not exceed that conferred by the law of the country to which the order relates:

(iv) The order may provide that the enjoyment of the rights conferred by this Act shall be subject to the accomplishment of such conditions and formalities, if any, as may be prescribed by the order,

(v) In applying the provisions of this Act as to ownership of copyright, the order may make such exceptions and modifications as appear necessary, having regard to the law of the foreign country.

(vi) The order may provide that this Act or any part thereof shall not apply to works made before the commencement of the order or that this Act or any part thereof shall not apply to works first published before the commencement of the order.

41. Provisions as to works of certain international organisations –

(1) Where-

(a) Any work is made or first published by or under the direction or control of any organsiation to which the section applies, and

(b) There would, apart from this section, be no copyright in the work in India at the time of the making or, as the case may be, of the first publication thereof, and

(c) Either –

(i) The work is published as aforesaid in pursuance of an agreement in that behalf with the author, being an agreement which does not reserve to the author the copyright, if any, in the work, or

(ii) Under Section 17 any copyright in the work would belong to the organisation.

There shall, by virtue of this section, be copyright in the work throughout India.

(2) Any organisation to which this section applies which at the material time had not the legal capacity of a body corporate shall have and be deemed at all material times to have had the legal capacity of a body corporate for the purposes of holding, dealing with, and enforcing copyright and in connection with all legal proceeding relating to copyright.

(3) The organisation to which this section applies are such organisation as the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, declare to be organisation of which one or more sovereign powers or the Government or Governments thereof are members to which it is expedient that this section shall apply.

42. Power to restrict rights in works of foreign authors first published in India –

If it appears to the Central Government that a foreign country does not give or has not undertaken to give adequate protection to the works of Indian authors, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, direct that such of the provisions of this Act as confer copyright on works first published after the date specified in the order, the authors whereof are subjects or citizens of such foreign country and are not domiciled in India, and thereupon those provisions shall not apply to such works.

43. Orders under this Chapter to be laid before Parliament-

Every order made by the Central Government under this Chapter shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall be subject to such modifications as Parliament may make during the session in which it is so laid or the session immediately following.

CHAPTER X – Registration of Copyright

44. Register of Copyright –

There shall be kept at the Copyright Office a register in the prescribed form to be called the Register of Copyrights in which may be entered the names or titles of works and the names and address of authors, publishers and owners of copyright and such other particulars as may be prescribed.

45. Entries in Register of Copyrights-

(1) The author or published of, or the owner of or other person interested in the copyright in, any work may make an application in the prescribed form accompanied by the prescribed fee to the Registrar of Copyrights for entering particulars of the work in the Register of Copyrights.

[(Note: Added by Act 23 of 1983, S.16 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984) Provided that in respect of an artistic work which in used or is capable of being used in relation to any goods, the application shall include a statement to that effect and shall be accompanied by a certificate from the Registrar of Trade Marks referred to in Section 4 of the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 (43 of 1958), to the effect that no trade mark identical with or deceptively similar to such artistic work has been registered under than Act in the name of, or that no application has been made under that Act for such registration by, any person other than the applicant.]

(2) On receipt of an applicant in respect of any work under sub section (1), the Registrar of Copyrights may, after holding any such inquiry as he may deem fit, enter the particulars of the work in the Register of Copyrights.

NOTES

Registration not essential – Registration is not a condition precedent for filing any action against infringement of copyright. The provision is optional and is only intended to provide a prima facie proof of the particulars.

Non-registration does not deprive the owner of copyright of his right to bring both criminal and civil action.

46. Indexes –

There shall be also kept at the Copyright Office such indexes of the Register of Copyrights, as may be prescribed.

47. Form and inspection of register.-

The register of Copyrights and indexes thereof kept under this Act shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection, and any person shall be entitled to take copies of, or make extracts from, such register or indexes on payment of such fee and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.

48. Register of Copyrights to be prima facie evidence of particulars entered therein –

The Register of Copyright shall be prima facie evidence of the particulars entered therein and documents purporting to be copies of any entries therein, or extracts there from certified by the Registrar of Copyrights and sealed with the seal of the Copyright Office shall be admissible in evidence in all courts without further proof or production of the original.

49. Correction of entries in the Register of Copyrights –

The Register of Copyrights may, in the prescribed cases and subject to the prescribed conditions, amend or alter the Register of Copyrights by –

(a) Correcting any error in any name, address or particulars, or

(b) Correcting any other error which may have arisen therein by accidental slip or omission.

50. Rectification of Register by Copyright Board-

The Copyright Board, on application of the Registrar of Copyrights or of any person aggrieved, shall order the rectification of the Register of Copyrights by-

(a) The making of any entry wrongly omitted to be made in the register, or

(b) The expunging of any entry wrongly made in, or remaining on, the register, or,

(c) The correction of any error or defect in the register.

50A. Entries in the Register of Copyrights, etc. to be published-

Every entry made in the Register of Copyrights or the particulars of any work entered under Section 45, the correction of every entry made in such register under Section 49, and every rectification ordered under section 50, shall be published by the Registrar of Copyrights in the Official Gazette or in such other manner as he may deem fit.

51. When copyright infringed –

Copyright in a work shall be deemed to be infringed –

(a) When any person, without a licence granted by the owner of the Copyright or the Registrar of Copyrights under this Act or in contravention of the conditions of a licence so granted or of any conditions imposed by a competent authority under this Act-

(i) Does anything, the exclusive right to do which is by this Act conferred upon the owner of the copyright, or

(ii) [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.16(1) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) permits for profit any place to be used for the communication of the work to the public where such communication constitutes an infringement of the copyright in the work, unless he was not aware and had no reasonable ground for believing that such communication to the public would be an infringement of copyright, or]

(b) When any person –

(i) Make for sale on hire, or sells or lets for hire, or by way of trade displays or offers for sale or hire, or

(ii) Distributes either for the purposes of trade or to such an extent as to affect prejudicially the owner of the copyright, or

(iii) By way of trade exhibits in public, or

(iv) Imports (Omitted by Act 65 of 1984, S.3 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) into India, any infringing copies of the work:

[(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.16(2) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) Provided that nothing in such clause (iv) shall apply to the import of one copy of any work for the private and domestic use of the importer.]

Explanation – For the purposes of this section, the reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work in the form of a cinematograph film shall be deemed to be an “infringing copy”.

NOTES

Basis of Copyright Law. – The fundamental idea of violation of copyright or imitation is the violation of the eighth commandment: “Thou shall not steal,” which makes the moral basis of the protective provisions of the Copyright Act.. It is obvious that when a writer or a dramatist produces a drama, it is the result of his great labour, energy, time and ability and if any other person is allowed to appropriate the labours of the copyright work, his act amounts to theft by depriving the original owner of the copyright of the product of his labour.

Test – There is no better way of detecting the piracy in an alleged infringing work than by making a careful examination of it to see whether any of the deviation and mistakes which artistic licence permits in the original have been reproduced in the alleged infringing copy.

Similar mistakes – Where the mistakes committed by the plaintiff in certain calculations in his book were found in the defendant’s book in similar calculations it was held that the defendant had copied the calculations from plaintiff’s book.

Common source – A person is at liberty to draw upon common sources of information. But if he saves himself the trouble and labour requisite for collecting that information by adopting another’s work with colorable variations, he is guilty of infringement of copyright, even though the original work is based on materials which are common property.

It is well-settled that even where the source of information used in a book is common and which is available to all, even then a compilation which has been brought out as a result of labour and industry put by a person, then in such a case he can claim a copyright in the publication brought out by him.

Several persons may originate similar works in the same general form without anyone infringing the law in regard to copyright. The infringement comes in only when it can be shown that someone has, instead of utilizing the available sources to originate his work, appropriated the labours of another by resorting to a slavish copy or mere colorable imitation thereof.

In cases of works composed of or compiled or prepared from materials open to all the true principle is that the defendant is not at liberty to use or avail himself of the labour which the plaintiff has been at, for the purpose of producing his work, that is in fact, merely to take away the result of another man’s labour or on other words, hi property.

A person relying on plea of common source must show that he went to common source from which he borrowed, employing his skill, labour and brains and that he did not merely do the work of copyist by copying away from a work.

In law books the amount of “originality” will be very small, but that small amount is protected by law.

In law reports containing only approved repots of cases decided by courts, there is copyright. A man is not allowed to appropriate for himself the arrangement, sequence, order, idiom, etc., employed by another, using his brains, skill and labour.

The plaintiffs complied their book with considerable labour from various sources and digested and arranged the matter taken by them from other authors. The defendant instead of taking pains of searching into all common sources and obtaining his subject-matter from them availed himself of the labour of the plaintiffs and adopted their arrangement and subject-matter. Such a use by defendant of the plaintiffs book cannot be regarded as legitimate.

Where the balance of convenience and inconvenience on both sides is equal, the defendant who has been proved to have prima facie infringed the copyright of the plaintiff’s work must suffer inconvenience by grant of injunction rather than the plaintiff by not granting it.

Temporary injunction may be granted even if reference pirated by the defendant are insignificant compared to the total volume of the defendant’s work.

Abridgement and translations can both infringe copyright – 70 Cal WN 1130.

52. Certain acts not to be infringement of copyright –

(1) The following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright namely –

(a) A fair dealing with a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work [not being a computer programme (Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified))] for the purposes of –

(i) [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) private use, including research:]

(ii) Criticism or review, whether of that work or of any other work.

(aa) [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) The making of copies or adaptation of a computer programme by the lawful possessor of a copy of such computer programme, from such copy-

(i) In order to utilize the computer programme for the purposes for which ti was supplied, or

(ii) To make back up copies purely as a temporary protection against loss, destruction or damage in order only to utilize the computer programme for the purpose for which it was supplied;]

(b) A fair dealing with a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work for the purpose of reporting current events-

(i) In a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, or

(ii) By [(Note: Subs. for “radio-diffusion” by Act 23 of 1983, S.2 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) broadcast] or in a cinematograph film or by means of photographs,

[(Note: Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, S.18 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) Explanation – The publication of a compilation of address or speeches delivered in public is not a fair dealing of such work within the meaning of this clause.]

(a) The reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work for the purpose of judicial proceeding or for the purpose a report of a judicial proceedings;

(b) The reproduction or publication of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work in any work prepared by the Secretariat of a Legislature, or, where the Legislature consists of two Houses, by the Secretariat of either House of the Legislature, exclusively for the use of the members of that Legislature;

(c) The reproduction of any literary, dramatic or musical work in a certified copy made or supplied in accordance with any law for the time being in force;

(d) The reading or recitation in public of any reasonable extract form a published literary or dramatic work;

(e) The publication in a collection, mainly composed on non copyright matter, bona fide intended for the use of educational institutions and so described in the title and in any advertisement issued by or on behalf of the publisher, of short passages from published literary or dramatic works, not themselves published for the use of educational institutions, in which copyright subsists;

Provided that not more than two such passages from works by the same author are published by the same publisher during any period of five years.

Explanation – In the case of a work of joint authorship, references in this clause to passages from works shall include references to passages from works by any one or more of the authors of those passages or by any one or more those authors in collaboration with any other person;

(f) The reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work-

(i) By a teacher or a pupil in the course of instruction, or

(ii) As part of the questions to be answered in an examination, or

(iii) In answers to such questions

(g) The performance, in the course of the activities of an educational institutions, of a literary, dramatic or musical work by the staff and students of the institution, or of a cinematograph film or a [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording], if the audience is limited to such staff and students, the parents and guardians of the students and persons directly connected with activities of the institution [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) or the communication to such an audience of a cinematograph film or sound recording];

(h) [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) The making of sound recordings in respect of any literary, dramatic or musical work, if-

(i) Sound recordings of that work have been made by or with the licence or consent of the owner of the right in the work

(ii) The person making the sound recordings has given a notice of his intentions to make the sound recordings, has provided copies of all covers or labels with which the sound recordings are to be sold, and has paid in the prescribed manner to the owner of rights in the work royalties in respect of all such sound recordings to be made by him, at the rate fixed by the Copyright Board in this behalf.

Provided that-

(i) No alterations shall be made which have not been made previously by or with the consent of the owner of rights, or which are not reasonably necessary for the adaptation of the work for the purpose of making the sound recordings.

(ii) The sound recordings shall not be issued in any form of packaging or with any label which is likely to mislead or confuse the public as to their identity.

(iii) No such sound recording shall be made until the expiration of two calendar years after the end of the year in which the first sound recording of the work was made, and

(iv) The person making such sound recordings shall allow the owner of rights or his duly authorised agent or representative to inspect all records and books of accounts relating to such sound recording.

Provided further that if on a complaint brought before the Copyright Board to the effect that the owner of rights has not been paid in full for any sound recordings purporting to be made in pursuance of this clause, the Copyright Board is prima facie, satisfied that the complaint is genuine. It may pass an order ex prate directing the person making the sound recording to cease from making further copies and, after holding such inquiry as it considers necessary, make such further orders as it may deem fit, including an order for payment of royalty.

(i) The causing of a recording to be heard in public by utilizing it, –

(i) In an enclosed room or shall meant for the common use of residents in any residential premises (not being a hotel or similar commercial establishment) as part of the amenities provided exclusively or mainly for residents therein, or

(ii) As part of the activities of a club or similar organisation which is not established or conducted for profit.

(k) The performance of a literary, dramatic or musical work by an amateur club or society, if the performance is given to a non paying audience, or for the benefit of a religious institution.

(l) The reproduction in a newspaper, magazine or other periodical of an article on current economic, political, social or religious topics, unless the author of such article has expressly reserved to himself the right of such reproduction.

(m) The publication in a newspaper, magazine or other periodical of a report of a lecture delivered in public

(n) The making of not more than three copies of a book (including a pamphlet, sheet of music, map, chart or plant) by or under the direction of the person in charge of a public library for the use of the library if such book is not available for sale in India.

(o) The reproduction, for the purpose of research or private study or with a view to publication, of an unpublished literary, dramatic or musical work kept in a library, museum or other institution to which the public has access.

Provided that where the identity of the author of such work, or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, of any of the authors is known to the library, museum or other institution, as the case may be, the provisions of this clause shall apply only if such reproduction is made at a time more than fifty years from the date of the death of the author or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, from the death of the author whose identify is known or, if the identify of more authors than one is known from the death of such of those authors who dies last.

(p) The reproduction or publication of-

(i) Any matter which has been published in any Gazette except an Act if a Legislature.

(ii) Any Act of a Legislature subject to the condition that such Act is reproduced or published together with any commentary thereon or nay other original matter.

(iii) The report of any committee, commission, council, board or other like body appointed by the Government if such report has been laid on the Table of Legislature, unless the reproduction or publication of such report is prohibited by the Government.

(iv) Any judgement or order of a court, tribunal or other judicial authority, unless the reproduction or publication of such judgement or order is prohibited by the court, the tribunal or other judicial authority, as the case may be

(q) the production or publication of a translation in any Indian language of an Act of a Legislature and of any rules or orders made there under-

(i) If no translation of such Act or rules or orders in that language has previously been produced or published by the Government, or

(ii) Where a translation of such Act or rules or orders in that language has been produced or published by the Government if the translation is not available for sale to the public

Provided that such translation contains a statement at a prominent place to the effect that the translation has not been authorised or accepted as authentic by the Government.

(r) [(Note: subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) the making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a work of architecture or the display of a work of architecture.]

(s) The making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a sculpture, or other artistic work falling under sub clause (iii) of clause (e) of Section 2, if such work is permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access.

(t) The inclusion in a cinematograph film of-

(i) Any artistic work permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access, or

(ii) Any other artistic work, if such inclusion is only by way of background or is otherwise incidental to the principal matters represented in the film,

(u) The use by the author of an artistic work where the author of such work is not the owner of the copyright therein, of any mould, cast, sketch, plan, model or study made by him for the purpose of the work.

Provided that he does not thereby repeat or imitate the main design of the work

(v) (Note: Omitted by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified))

(w) The reconstruction of a building or structure in accordance with the architectural drawings or plans by references to which the building or structure was originally constructed.

Provided that the original construction was made with the consent or licence of the owner of the copyright in such drawings and plans,

(x) In relation to a literary, dramatic or musical work recorded or reproduced in any cinematograph film, the exhibition of such film after the expiration of the term of copyright therein.

Provided that provisions of sub clause (ii) of clause (a), sub clause (I) of clause (b) and clauses (d), (f), (g), (m), and (p) shall not apply as respects any act unless that act is accompanied by an acknowledge –

(i) Identifying the work by its title or other description, and

(ii) Unless the work is anonymous or the author of the work has previously agreed or required that no acknowledgement of his name should be made, also identifying the author.

(y) [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) the making of an ephemeral recording, by a broadcasting organisation using its own facilities for its own broadcast by a broadcasting organisation of a work which it has the right to broadcast, and the retention of such recording for archival purpose on the ground of its exceptional documentary character.

(z) The performance of a literary, dramatic or musical work or the communication to the public of such work or of a sound recording in the course of any bona fide religious ceremony or an official ceremony held by the Central Government or the State Government or any local authority.

Explanation – For the purpose of this clause, religious ceremony includes a marriage procession and other social festivities associated with a marriage.]

(2) The provision of sub section (I) shall apply to the doing of any act in relation to the translation of a literary, dramatic or musical work or the adaptation of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work as they apply in relation to the work itself.

52A. Particulars to be included in sound recordings and video films –

(1)No person shall publish a [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording] in respect of any work unless the following particulars are displayed on the [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording] and on nay container thereof, namely :-

(a) The name and address of the person who has made the [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording];

(b) The name and address of the owner of the copyright is such work; and

(c) The year of its first publication

(2) No person shall publish a video film in respect of any work unless the following particulars are displayed in the video film, when exhibited, and on the video cassette or other container thereof, namely:-

(a) If such work is cinematograph film required to be certified for exhibition under the provisions of the Cinematograph Act, 1952 (37 of 1952), a copy of the certificate granted by the Board of Film Certification under Section 5-A of that Act in respect of such work.

(b) The name and address of the person who has made the video film and a declaration by him that he has obtained the necessary licence or consent from the owner of the copyright in such work for making such video film, and

(c) The name and address of the owner of the copyright in such work.

52B. Accounts and audit –

(1) Every copyright society appointed under Section 345-A shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts, in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.

(2) The accounts of each of the copyright societies in relation to the payments received from the Central Government shall be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India such intervals as may be specified by him and any expenditure incurred in connection with such audit shall be payable by the copyright society to the Comptroller and Auditor General.

(3) The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India or any other person appointed by him in connection with the audit of the accounts of the copyright society referred to in sub section (2) shall have the same rights and privileges and authority in connection with such audit as the Comptroller and Auditor-General has in connection with the audit of the Government accounts and, in particular, shall have the right to demand the production of books, accounts and other documents and papers and to inspect any of the offices of the copyright society for the purpose only of such audit.

(4) The accounts of each of the copyright societies as certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India or any other person appointed by him in this behalf together with the audit report thereon shall be forwarded annually to the Central Government and that Government shall cause the same to be laid before each House of Parliament.

53. Importation of infringing copies –

(1) The Registrar of Copyrights, on application by the owner of the copyright in nay work or by his duly authorised agent and on payment of the prescribed fee, may, after making such inquiry as he deems fit, order that copies made out of India, of the work which if made in India would infringe copyright shall not be imported.

(2) Subject to any riles made under this Act, the Registrar of Copyrights or any person authorised by him in this behalf may enter any ship, dock or premises where any such copies as are referred to in sub section (1) may be found and may examine such copies.

(3) All copies to which any order made under sub section (1) applies shall be deemed to be goods of which the import has been prohibited or restricted [(Note: Subs. for “under Section 19 of the Sea Customs Act, 1871” by Act 23 of 1983, S.19 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) under section 11 of the Customs Act, 1962 (51 of 1962)], and all the provisions of that Act shall have effect accordingly:

Provided that all such copies confiscated under the provisions of the said Act shall not vest in the Government but shall be delivered to the owner of the copyright in the work.

53A. Resale share right in original copies –

(1) In the case of resale for a price exceeding ten thousand rupees, of the original copy of a painting, sculpture on drawing, or of the original manuscript of a literary or dramatic work or musical work, the author of such work if he was the first owner of rights under Section 17 or his legal heirs shall, notwithstanding any assignment of copyright in such work, have a right to share in the resale price of such original copy or manuscript in accordance with the provisions of this section:

Provided that such right shall cease to exist on the expiration of the term of copyright in the work.

(2) The share referred to in sub section (1) shall be such as the Copyright Board may fix and the decision of the Copyright Board in this behalf shall be final :

Provided that the Copyright Board may fix different shares for different classes of work:

Provided further that in no case shall the share exceed ten per cent of the resale price.

(3) If any dispute arises regarding the right conferred by this section, it shall be referred to the Copyright Board whose decision shall be final.

CHAPTER XII – Civil Remedies

54. Definition –

For the purposes of this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression, “owner of copyright” shall include-

(a) An exclusive licensee :

(b) In the case of an anonymous or pseudonymous literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, the publisher of the work, until the identity of the author or, in the case of an anonymous work of joint authorship, or a work of joint authorship published under names all of which are pseudonyms, the identity of any of the authors, is disclose publicly by the author and the publisher or is otherwise established to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board by that author or his legal representatives.

55. Civil remedies for infringement of copyright –

(1) Where copyright is any work has been infringed, the owner of the copyright shall, except as otherwise provided by this Act, be entitled to all such remedies by way of injunction, damages, accounts and otherwise as are or may be conferred by law for the infringement of a right.

Provided that if the defendant proves that at the date of the infringement he was not aware and had no reasonable ground for believing that copyright subsisted in the work, the Plaintiff shall not be entitled to any remedy other than an injunction in respect of the infringement and a decree for the whole or part of the profits made by the defendant by the sale of the infringing copies as the court may in the circumstances deem reasonable.

(2) Where, in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, a name purporting to be that of the author or the publisher, as the case may be, appears on copies of the work as published, or, in the case of an artistic work, appeared on the work when it was made, the person whose name so appears or appeared shall, in any proceeding in respect of infringement of copyright in such work, be presumed, unless the contrary is provided, to be the author or the publisher of the work, as the case may be.

(3) The costs of all parties in any proceeding in respect of the infringement of copyright shall be in the discretion of the court.

NOTES

Injunctions – The power of the Court to grant a temporary injunction is not limited by the absence of any finding on the question of jurisdiction which has been raised in the case.

The precise rule of law contained in cl. (f), S.56, Specific Relief Act, cannot, interfere in any way with the discretion of the Court in regard to a temporary injunction the grant of which should therefore be governed by other principles.

56. Protection of separate rights –

Subject to the provisions of this Act, where the several rights comprising the copyright in any work are owned by different person, the owner of any such right shall , to the extent of that right, be entitled to the remedies provided by this Act and may individually enforce such right by means of any suit, action or other proceeding without making the owner of any other right a party to such suit, action or proceeding.

57. Authors special rights –

[(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.20(w.e.f. a date to be notified)) (1) Independently of the author’s copyright and even after the assignment either wholly or partially of the said copyright, the author of a work shall have the right-

(a) To claim authorship of the work : and

(b) To restrain or claim damages in respect of any distortion, mutilation, modification or other act in relation to the said work which is done before the expiration of the term of copyright if such distortion, mutilation, modification or other act would be prejudicial to his honor or reputation.

Provided that the author shall not have any right to restrain or claim damages in respect of any adaptation of a computer programme to which clause (aa) of sub section (1) of Section 52 applies.

Explanation- Failure to display a work or to display it to them satisfaction of the author shall not be deemed to be an infringement of the right conferred by this section.

(2) The right conferred upon an author of a work by sub section (1), other than the right to claim authorship of the work, may be exercised by the legal representatives of the author.

58. Right of owner against persons possessing or dealing with infringing copies –

All infringing copies of any work in which copyright subsists and all plates used or intended to be used for the production of such infringing copies shall be deemed to be the property of the owner of the copyright, who accordingly may take proceedings for the recovery of possession thereof or in respect of the conversion thereof.

Provided that the owner of the copyright shall not be entitled to any remedy in respect of the conversion of any infringing copies, if the opponent proves –

(a) That he was not aware and had not reasonable ground to believe that copyright subsisted in the work of which such copies are alleged to be infringing copies; or

(b) That he had reasonable grounds for believing that such copies or plates do not involve infringement of the copyright in any work.

NOTES

Infringing copies and price of copies sold can be recovered by owner of copyright – Gopal Das v. Jagannath Prasad. AIR 1938 ALL 266.

59. Restriction on remedies in the case of works of architecture –

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in [Note: Subs. for “the Specific Relief Act,1877” by Act 23 of 1983, S.20 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) the Specific Relief Act, 1963 (47 of 1963)], where the construction of a building or other structure which infringes or which, if completed, would infringe the copyright in some other work has been commenced, the owner of the copyright shall not be entitled to obtain an injunction to restrain the construction of such building or structure or to order its demolition.

(2) Nothing in Section 58 shall apply in respect of the construction of a building or other structure which infringes or which, if completed, would infringe the copyright in some other work.

60. Remedy in the case of groundless threat of legal proceedings –

Where any person claiming to be the owner of copyright in any work, by circulars, advertisements or otherwise, threatens any other person with any legal proceedings or liability in respect of an alleged infringement of the copyright, any person aggrieved thereby may, notwithstanding anything contained [(Note: Subs. for “in Section 42 of the Specific Relief Act,1877” by Act 23 of 1983, S.21 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) in section 34 of the Specific Relief Act,, 1963 (47 of 1963)] institute a declaratory suit that the alleged infringement to which the threats related was not in fact an infringement of any legal rights of the person making such threats and may in any such suit-

(a) Obtain an injunction against the continuance of such threats, and

(b) Recover such damages, if any, as he has sustained by reason of such threats:

Provided that this section shall not apply if the person making such threats, with due diligence, commences and prosecutes an action of infringement of the copyright claimed by him.

61. Owner of copyright to be party to the proceeding –

(1) In every civil suit or other proceeding regarding infringement of copyright instituted by an exclusive licensee, the owner of the copyright shall, unless the court otherwise directs, be made a defendant and where such owner is made a defendant, he shall have the right to dispute the claim of the exclusive licensee.

(2) Where any civil suit or other proceeding regarding infringement of copyright instituted by an exclusive licensee is successful, no fresh suit or other proceeding in respect of the same cause of action shall lie at the instance of the owner of the copyright.

62. Jurisdiction of court over matters arising under this Chapter –

(1) Every suit or other civil proceeding arising under this Chapter in respect of the infringement of copyright in any work or the infringement of any other right conferred by this Act shall be instituted in the district court having jurisdiction.

(2) For the purpose of sub section (1), a “district court having jurisdiction ” shall notwithstanding anything contained in the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), or any other law for the time being in force, include a district court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction , at the time of the institution of the suit or other proceeding, the person instituting the suit or other proceeding or, where there are more than one such persons, any of them actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

CHAPTER XIII – Offences

63. Offence of infringement of copyright or other rights conferred by this Act –

Any person who knowingly infringes or abets the infringement of-

(a) The copyright in a work, or (b) Any other right concerned by this Act [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.21 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) except the right conferred by Section 53-A]

[(Note: Subs. by Act 65 of 1984, S.5 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extended to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees:

Provided that [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.21 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) where the infringement has not been made for gain in the course of trade or business] the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than six months or a fine of less than fifty thousand rupees.]

Explanation – Construction of a building or other structure which infringes or which, if completed, would infringe the copyright in some other work shall not be an offence under this section.

63-A. Enhanced penalty on second and subsequent convictions –

Whoever having already been convicted of an offence under Section 63 is again convicted of any such offence shall be punishable for the second and for every subsequent offence, with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than one lakh rupees but which may extend to two lakhs rupees.

Provided that [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.22 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) where the infringement has not been made for again in the course of trade or business the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, impose a sentence of imprisonment for a term of less than one year or a fine of less than one lakh rupees.

Provided further that for the purpose of this section, no cognizance shall be taken of any conviction made before the commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1984 (65 of 1984).]

63-B. Knowing use of infringing copy of computer programme to be an offence –

Any person who knowingly makes use on a computer of an infringing copy of a computer programme shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven days but which may extend to three years and with fine which shall not be less than fifty thousand rupees but which may extend to two lakh rupees.

Provided that where the computer programme has not been used for gain or in the course of trade or business, the court may, for adequate and special reasons to be mentioned in the judgement, not impose any sentence of imprisonment and may impose a fine which may extend to fifty thousand rupees.

64. Power of police to seize infringing copies –

[Note: Subs. for sub-section (1) by Act 65 of 1984, S.7 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) (1) Any police officer, not below the rank of a sub inspector, may, if he is satisfied that an offence under Section 63 in respect of the infringement of copyright in work has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, seize without warrant, all copies of the work, and all plates used for the purpose of making infringing copies of the work, wherever found, and all copies and plates so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a Magistrate.]

(2) Any person having an interest in any copies of a work [(Note: Ins. by Act 65 of 1984, S.7 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) , or plates] seized under sub section (1) may, within fifteen days of such seizure, make an application to the Magistrate for such copies [(Note: Ins. by Act 65 of 1984, S.7 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) or plates] being restored to him and the Magistrate, after hearing the applicant and the complainant and making such further inquiry as may be necessary, shall make such order on the application, as he may deem fit.

65. Possession of plates for purpose of making infringing copies –

Any person who knowingly makes, or has in his possession, any plate for the purpose of making infringing copies of any work in which copyright subsists shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to [(Note: Subs. for “one year, or with fine, or with both” by Act 65 of 1984,S.8 (w.e.f. 8-10-1984)) two years and shall also be liable to fine.]

66. Disposal of infringing copies or plates for purpose of making infringing copies –

The court trying and offence under this Act may, whether the alleged offender is convicted or not, order that all copies of the work or all plates in the possession of the alleged offender, which appear to it to be infringing copies, or plates for the purpose of making infringing copies, be delivered up to the owner of the copyright.

67. Penalty for making false entries in register etc, for producing or tendering false entries

Any person who,-

(a) Makes or causes to be made a false entry in the Register of Copyrights kept under this Act, or

(b) Makes a causes to be made a writing falsely purporting to be a copy of any entry in such register, or

(c) Produces or tenders or causes to be produced or tendered as evidence any such entry or writing, knowing the same to be false.

Shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

68. Penalty for making false statements for the purpose of deceiving or influencing any authority or officer

-Any person who –

(a) With a view to deceiving any authority or officer in the execution of the provisions of this Act, or

(b) With a view to procuring or influencing the doing or omission of anything in relation to this act or any matter there under , makes a false statement or representation knowing the same to be false , shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

68-A. Penalty for contravention of Section 52-A. –

Any person who publishes a [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording] or a video film in contravention of the provisions of Section 52-A shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine.]

69. Offences by companies –

(1) Where any offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who at the time the offence was committed was in charge of, and was responsible to the company for, the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company shall be deemed to be guilty of such offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Provided that nothing contained in this sub section shall render any person liable to nay punishment, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence was committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any negligence on the part of , any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation – For the purposes of this section –

(a) “Company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of persons, and

(b) “Director” in relation to a firm means a partner in the firm.

70. Cognizance of offences –

No court inferior to that of [(Note: Subs. for “a Presidency Magistrate or a Magistrate of the first class” by Act 23 of 1983, S.22 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) a Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of the first class] shall try any offence under this Act.

CHAPTER XIV – Appeals

71. Appeals against certain orders of Magistrate –

Any person aggrieved by an order made under sub section (2) of Section 64 or Section 66 may, within thirty days of the date of such order, appeal to the court to which appeals from the court making he order ordinarily lie, and such appellate court may direct that execution of the order be stayed pending disposal of the appeal.

72. Appeals against orders of Registrar of Copyrights and Copyright Board –

(1) Any person aggrieved by any final decision or order of the Registrar of Copyrights may, within three months from the date of the order or decision, appeal to the Copyright Board.

(2) Any person aggrieved by any final decision or order of the Copyright Broad, not being a decision or order made in an appeal under sub section (1), may within three months from the date of such decision or order, appeal to the High Court within whose jurisdiction the appellant actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain.

Provided that no such appeal shall lie against a decision of the Copyright Board under Section 6.

(3) In calculating the period of three months provided for an appeal under this section, the time taken in granting a certified copy of the order or record of the decision appealed against shall be excluded.

73. Procedure for appeals –

This High Court may make rules consistent with this Act as to the procedure to be followed in respect of appeals made to it under Section 72.

CHAPTER XV – Miscellaneous

74. Registrar of Copyrights and Copyright Board to possess certain powers of civil courts –

The Registrar of Copyright and the Copyright Board shall have the powers of a civil court when trying a suit under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 ( 5 of 1908) in respect of the following matters, namely :-

(a) Summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person and examining him and oath :

(b) Requiring the discovery and production of any document

(c) Receiving evidence on affidavits :

(d) Issuing commissions for the examinations of witnesses or documents :

(e) Requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office :

(f) Any other matter which may be prescribed.

Explanation – For the purpose of enforcing the attendance of witnesses, the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Registrar of Copyrights or the Copyrights Board, as the case may be, shall be the limits of the territory of India.

75. Orders for payment of money passed by Registrar of Copyrights and Copyright Broad to be executable as a decree –

Every order made by the Registrar of Copyrights or the Copyright Board under this Act for the payment of any money or by the High Court in any appeal against any such order of the Copyright Board shall, on a certificate issued by the Registrar of Copyrights, the Copyright Board or the Registrar of the High Court, as the case may be, de deemed to be a decree of a civil court and shall be executable in he same manner as a decree of such court.

76. Protection of action taken in good faith –

No suit or other legal proceeding shall lie against any person in respect of anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act.

77. Certain persons to be public servants –

Every officer appointed under this Act and every member of the Copyright Broad shall be deemed to be a public servant within the meaning of Section 21 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860).

78. Power to make rules –

(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules (Note: For the Copyright Rules,1958, see. Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, p.167) for carrying out the purposes of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, the Central Government may make rules to provide for all or any of the following matters, namely –

(a) The term of office and conditions of service of the Chairman and other members of the Copyright Broad

(b) The form of complaints and applications to be made, and the licence to be granted under this Act,

(c) The procedure to be followed in connection with any proceeding before the Registrar of Copyrights,

(ca) [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.24 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) the conditions for submission of application under sub section (2) of Section 33,

(cb) The conditions subjects to which a copyright society may be registered under sub section (3) of Section 33.

(cc) The inquiry for cancellation of registration under sub section (4) of Section 33

(cd) The conditions subject to which the copyright society may accept authroisation under clause (a) of sub section (1) of Section 34 and the conditions subject to which owners of rights have right to withdraw such authorisation under clause (d) of that sub section.

(ce) The manner in which the approval of the owners of rights regarding collection and distribution of fees, approval for utilization of any amount collected as fees and to provide to such owners information concerning activities in relation to the administration of their rights under sub section (1) of Section 36.

(cf) The manner in which the approval of the owners of rights regarding collection and distribution of fees, approval for utilisation of any amount collected as fees and to provide to such owners information concerning activities in relation to the administration of their rights under sub-section (1) of Section 35;

(cg) The returns to be filed by copyright societies to the Registrar of Copyrights under sub-section (1) of Section 36;]

(d) The manner of determining any royalties payable under this Act, and the security to be taken for the payment of such royalties;

(da) [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.24 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) The manner of payment of royalty under clause (j) of sub-section (1) of Section 52;

(db) The form and the manner in which the copyright society shall maintain accounts and other relevant records and prepare annual statements of accounts and the manner in which the quantum of remuneration is to be paid to individual owner of rights under sub section (I) of Section 52-B.]

(e) The form of Register of Copyrights to be kept under this Act and the particulars to be entered therein.

(f) The matters in respect of which the Registrar of Copyrights and the Copyright Board shall have powers of a civil court.

(g) The fees which may be payable under this Act.

(h) The regulation of business of the Copyright Office and of all things by this Act placed under the direction or control of the Registrar of Copyrights.

(3) [(Note: Subs. for sub-section 3 by Act 23 of 1983, Section 23 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) Every rule made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session , for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive session aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be, so, however, that such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.]

79. Repeals, savings and transitional provisions –

(1) The Indian Copyright Act, 1914 (3 of 1914), and the Copyright Act of 1911 passed by the Parliament of the Untied Kingdom as modified in its application to India by the Indian Copyright Act, 1914, are hereby repealed.

(2) Where nay person has , before the commencement of this Act, taken any action whereby he has incurred and expenditure or liabilities in connection with the reproduction or performance of any work in a manner which at the time was lawful or for the purpose of or with a view to the reproduction or performance of a work at a time when such reproduction or performance would, bur for the coming into force of this Act, have been lawful, nothing in this section shall diminish or prejudice any rights or interest arising from or in connection with such action which are subsisting and valuable at the said date, unless the person who, by virtue of this Act, becomes entitled to restrain such reproduction or performance agrees to pay such compensation as, failing agreement, may be determined by the Copyright Board.

(3) Copyright shall not subsist by virtue of this Act in any work in which copyright did not subsist immediately before the commencement of this Act under any Act repealed by sub section (1).

(4) Where copyright subsisted in any work immediately before the commencement of this Act, the rights comprising such copyright such copyright shall, as form the date of such commencement, e the rights specified in Section 14 in relation to the class of works to which such work belongs, and where any new rights are conferred by that section, the owner of such rights shall be-

(a) In any case where copyright in the work was wholly assigned before the commencement of this Act, the assignee or his successor-in-interest.

(b) In any other case, the person who was first owner of the copyright in the work under any Act repealed by sub section (1) or his legal representatives.

(5) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, where any person is entitled immediately before the commencement of this Act to copyright in any work or any right in such copyright or to an interest in any such right, he shall continue to be entitled to such right or interest for the period which he would have been entitled thereto if this Act and come into force.

(6) Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to render any act done before its commencement an infringement of copyright if that act would not otherwise have constituted such an infringement.

(7) Save as otherwise provided in this section, nothing in this section shall be deemed to affect the application of the General Clause Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), with respect to the effect of repeals.

Rules

CHAPTER I – Preliminary

1.Short title, extent and commencement –

(Note: Published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, 1958, Pt. II, S.3m p.167.) S.R.O. 270, dated the 21st January, 1858. – In excercise of the powers conferred by Section 78 of the Copyright Act, 1857 (14 of 1957) the Central Government hereby makes the following rules, namely –

1.Short title, extent and commencement –(1) These rules may be called the Copyright Rules, 1958.

(2)They extend to the whole of India.

(3)They shall come into force on the date on which the Act comes into quires, –

2. Interpretations –

In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires, –

(a) “Act” means the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957);

(b) “Form” means a form set out in the First Schedule;

(c) “Schedule” means a Schedule to these rules; and

(d) “Section” means a section of the Act.

CHAPTER II – The Copyright Board

3.Terms and conditions of office of the Chairman and members of the Copyright Board –

(1) The Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall be appointed for such period not exceeding five years as the Central Government may in each case deem fit .

(2) The Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall, on the expiry of the period of their appointment, be eligiblefor reappointment.

(3) The Chairman or any other member of the Copyright Board may resign his office by giving three months notice in writing to the Central Government.

(4) The Chairman or any other member of the Copyright Board shall be paid such salary or honorarium as may be determined by the Central Government in each case.

(5)A non-official appointed as the Chairman or other member of the Copyright Board shall be entitled to traveling allowances for journeys performed on duty and to daily allowances for the period spent on duty on the scale provided in the rules applicable to the class of officers to which the Central Government may declare him to correspond in status:

Provided that it shall be competent for the Central Government to provide a different scale of such allowances if the circumstances of any case so require.

(6)An official appointed as the chairman or other member of the Copyright Board shall be entitled to such traveling allowances for journeys performed on duty and to such daily allowances for the period spent on duty as may be admissible to him as such official.

(7)The other conditions of service of the Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall be regulated by orders made in that behalf by the Central Government from time to time.

4. Functions of the Secretary of the Copyright Board –

The Registrar or Copyrights shall perform all secretarial functions relating to the Copyright Board under the direction and control of the Chairman of the Copyright Board.

CHAPTER III – Relinquishment of Copyright

5.Notice of relinquishment –

The author of a work desiring to relinquish under Section 21 all or any of the rights comprised in the copyright in the work shall give notice to the Registrar of Copyrights in accordance with Form I.

CHAPTER IV – Licences for Translations

6.Application for licence –

(1) An application for a licence under Section 32 to produce and publish a translation of a literary or dramatic work in any language shall be made in triplicate in accordance with Form II and shall be accompanied by the fee prescribed in the Second Schedule.

(2)Every such application shall be in respect of one work only and for translation of that work into one language only.

7.Notice of application –

(1) When any such application has been made, the Copyright Board shall, as soon as possible, give notice of the application in the official Gazette and also, if the Copyright Board thinks fit, in one or two newspapers and shall send a copy of the notice to the owner of the copyright, wherever practicable.

(2)Every such notice shall contain the following particulars:-

(a)The date of the application;

(b) The name, address and nationality of the applicant;

(c) Particulars of the work which is to be translated;

(d) The date and country of the first publication of the work;

(e) The name, address and nationality of the owner of the copyright as stated in the application;

(f) The language in which the work is to be translated; and

(g) The Registration Number of the work in the Register of Copyrights, if any.

8.Consideration of the application –

(1) The Copyright Board shall consider the application after the expiry of not less than one hundred and twenty days from the date of the publication of the notice in the official Gazette.

(2)The Copyright Board shall give an opportunity to the applicant and also, wherever practicable, to any person claiming any interest in the copyright of the work, to be heard and may take such evidence in respect of the application as it thinks fit.

(3)If more than one application for translation of the work in the same language is pending before the Copyright Board at the expiry of one hundred and twenty days after the publication in the official Gazette of the notice of the application first received, all such applications shall be considered together.

(4)If the Copyright Board is satisfied that the licence for a translation of the work in the language applied for may be granted to the applicant, or, if there are more applicants than one, to such one of the applicants as, in the opinion of the Copyright Board, would best serve the interests of the general public, it shall grant a licence accordingly.

(5)Every such licence shall be subject to the condition provided in subsection (4) of Section 32 relating to the payment of royalties and shall specify –

(a)The period within which the translation shall be produced and published;

(b)The language in which the translation shall be produced and published;

(c)The rate at which royalties in respect of the copies of the translation of the work sold to the public shall be paid to the owner of the copyright in the work; and

(d) The person or persons to whom such royalties shall be payable.

(6)The grant of every such licence shall, as soon as possible, be notified in the official Gazette and in the newspapers, if any, in which the notice under Rule 7 was published and a copy of the lincence shall be sent to the other parties concerned.

9.Manner of determining royalties –

The Copyright Board shall determine the royalties payable to the owner of the copyright under subsection (4) of Section 32 after taking into consideration –

(a)The proposed retail price of a copy of the translation of the work;

(b)The prevailing standards of royalties in regard to translation of works; and

(c)Such other matters as may be considered relevant by the Copyright Board.

10.Extension of the period of licence –

The Copyright Board may, on the application of the licensee and after notice to the owner of the copyright, wherever practicable, if it is satisfied that the licensee was for sufficient reasons unable to produce and publish the translation within the period specified in the licence, extend such period.

11. Cancellation of licence –

The Copyright Board may, after giving the licensee an opportunity of being beard, cancel the licence on any of the following grounds, namely:-

(a) That the licensee has failed to produce and publish the translation within the time specified in the licence or within the time extended on the application of the licensee;

(b) That the licence was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation as to any essential fact;

(c) That the licensee contravened any of the terms and conditions of the licnece.

CHAPTER IV A – Compulsory Licence for Publication of Unpublished Works, Translation and Reproduction of Work

11-A.Application for licence –

An application for a licence under Section 31-A, sub-section (I-A) of Section 32 and Section 32-A to publish any unpublished work orto translate any work in any language or to reproduce any published work shall be made in triplicate in accordance with Form II-A and shall be accompanied by the fee prescribed in the Second Schedule.

11-B.

Every such application shall be in respect of one work only and in respect of translation of a work into one language only.

11-C. Notice of application –

(1) A copy of such application shall be served by registered mail on the owner of copyright and if the owner of such copyright is not known or is not traceable, a copy of the application shall be served on the publisher whose name appears on the work.

(2)The Copyright Board shall give an opportunity to the applicant and also, wherever practicable, to any person claiming any interest in the copyright of the work, to be heard and may take such evidence in respect of the application as it thinks fit.

(3)If more than one application for translation of the work in the same language or for reproduction of the work or for publication of any unpublished work is pending before the Copyright Board, all such applications shall be considered together.

(4)If the Copyright Board is satisfied that the licence for a translation of the work in the language or for reproduction of the work or for publication of unpublished work, applied for may be granted to the applicant, or if there are more applicants than one, to such one of the applicants, as in the opinion of the Copyright Board, would best serve the interests of the general public, it shall grant a licence accordingly.

(5)Every such licence shall be subject to the conditions provided in sub-section (7) of Section 31-A, clause (i) of sub-section (4) of Section 32 and clause (i) of sub-section (4) of Section 32-A relating to payment of royalties and shall specify:-

(a) The period within which such work shall be published;

(b) The rate at which royalties in respect of the copies of such work sold to the public shall be paid to the owner of the copyright in the work;

(c) In a case of translation of the work, the language in which the translation shall be produced and published; and

(d) The person or persons to whom such royalties shall be payable.

(6)The grant of every such licence shall, as soon as possible, be notified in the official Gazette and a copy of the licence shall be sent to the other parties concerned.

11-D. Manner of determining royalties –

The Copyright Board shall determine the royalties payable to the owner of the copyright under sub-section (7) of Section 31-A, clause (i) of sub-section (4) of Section 32 and clause (i) of sub-section (4) of Section 32-A after taking consideration:

(a) The proposed retail price of a copy of such work;

(b) The prevailing standards of royalties in regard to such works; and

(c) Such other matters as may be considered relevant by the Copyright Board.

11-E.Extension of the period of licence –

The Copyright Board may, on the application of the licensee and after notice to the owner of the copyright, wherever practicable, if it is satisfied that the licensee was for sufficient reasons unable to produce and publish the translation or reproduce the work or publish the unpublished work within the period specified in the licence, extend such period.

11-F. Cancellation of licence –

The Copyright Board may, after giving the licensee an opportunity of being heard, cancel the licence on any of the following grounds, namely :-

(a)That the licensee has failed to produce and publish such work within the time specified in the licence or within the time extended on the application of the licensee;

(b) That the licence was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation as to any essential fact;

(c)That the licensee has contravened any of the terms and conditions of the licence.

11-G. Notice for termination of licence –

Notice for termination of licence under proviso to sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) of Section 32-B shall be served onthe person holding the licence by the owner of copyright in Form II-B of the First Schedule to these rules.]

CHAPTER V – Performing Rights Societies

12. Publication of statement of fees etc. –

(1) Every performing rights society having at the commencement of the Act authority to grant licences for performance in public of any works shall, within three months of the commencement of the Act or within such further period as the Registrar of Copyrights may, for sufficient reasons, allow in respect of any such society on an application made by it in this behalf, prepare and publish, as its own cost, in the official Gazette and in two newspapers in the English language published in two different zones, the statements of all fees, charges or royalties which it proposes to collect for the grant of such licences.

(2)Every performing rights society shall, within one month of its acquiring after the commencement of the Act the authority to grant licences for performance in public of any works or within such further period as the Registrar of Copyrights may, for sufficient reasons, allow in respect of any such society on an a pplication made by it in this behalf, prepare and publish, as its own cost, in the official Gazette, and in two newspapers in the English language published in two different zones, the statements of all fees, charges or royalties which it proposes to collect for the grant of such licences.

(3)Every performing rights society shall file with the Registrar of Copyrights two copies of the statements prepared under sub-rule (1) of sub-rule (2) Within the time specified therein, together with two copies of each of the newspapers in which statements have been published.

Explanation – In this rule “Zone” shall have the same meaning as in Section 12.

13. Determination of objections –

The Copyright Board may take such evidence as it deems fit in determining any objection lodged under Section 34.

14. Publication of alterations in the statements of fees etc. –

The Registrar of Copyrights shall publish the alterations made by the Copyright Board in the statements of fees, charges or royalties in the official Gazette and in the two newspapers in which the original statements were published under Rule 12 or in such other newspapers as he may deem fit.

CHAPTER VI – Registration of Copyright

15.Form of Register of Copyrights –

(1) The Register of Copyrights shall be kept in four parts as follows:-

Part I.Literary, Dramatic and Musicial Works.

Part II.Artistic Works.

Part III. Cinematograph Films.

Part IV. Records.

(2)The Register of Copyrights shall contain the particulars specified in Form III.

16. Application for Registration of Copyright –

(1) Every application for registration of copyright shall be made in accordance with Form IV and every application for registration of changes in the particulars of copyright entered in the Register of Copyrights shall be made in accordance with Form V.

(2)Every such application shall be in respect of one work only, shall be made in triplicate and shall be accompanied by the fee specified in the Second Schedule in this behalf.

(3)[(Note: Subs. by Noti. No. GSR 435(E), dt. 27-4-1992 (w.e.f. 27-4-1992) The person applying for registration shall give notice of his application to every person who claims or has any interest in the subject matter of the copyright or disputes the rights of the applicant to it.]

(4)If no objection to such registration is received by the Registrar of Copyrights within thirty days of the receipt of the application by him, he shall, if satisfied about the correctness of the particulars given in the application, enter such particulars in the Register of Copyrights.

(5)If the Registrar of Copyright receives any objections for such registration within the time specified in sub-rule (4), or, if he is not satisfied about the correctness of the particulars given in the application, he may, after holding such inquiry as he deems fit, enter such particulars of the work in the Register of Copyrights as he considers proper.

(6)The Registrar of Copyrights shall, as soon as may be, send, wherever practicable, a copy of the entries made in the Register of Copyrights to the parties concerned.

17. Correction of entries in the Register of Copyrights –

The Registrar of Copyrights may, on his own motion or on application of any interested person, amend or alter the Register of Copyrights in the manner specified in Section 49 after giving, wherever practicable, to the person affected by such amendment or alteration, an opportunity to show cause against such amendment or alteration and communicate to such person the amendment or alteration made.

18.Indexes –

(1) There shall be kept at the Copyright Office the following indexes for each part of the Register of Copyrights, namely –

(i) A general Author Index;

(ii) A general Title Index;

(iii) An Author Index of works in each language; and

(iv) A Title Index of works in each language.

(2)Every index shall be arranged alphabetically in the form of cards.

19.Inspection of the Register of Copyrights and Indexes –

The Register of Copyrights and Indexes thereof shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by any person in such manner and subject to such conditions as the Registrar of Copyrights may specify.

20.Copies and extracts of the Register of Copyrights and Indexes –

(1) Any person shall be entitled to take copies of, or make extracts from, the Register of Copyrights or Indexes on payment of the fee specified in the Second Schedule subject to such supervision as the Registrar of Copyrights may arrange.

(2)The Registrar of Copyrights shall, on an application made in that behalf and on payment of the fee specified in the Second Schedule, furnish a certified copy of any entries made in the Register of Copyrights and Indexes thereof.

CHAPTER VII – Making of Records

21.Making of records –

(1) Any person intending to make records under clause (j) of sub-section (1) of Section 52 shall give notice of such intention to the owner of the copyright and to the Copyright Board at least [(Note: Subs. by G.S.R. 267, dated 22-4-1958) fifteen days] in advance of the making of the records and shall pay to the owner of the copyright, along with the notice, the amount of royalties due in respect of all the records to be made at the rate fixed by the Copyright Board in this behalf.

(2)Such notice shall contain the following information, namely:-

(a) The particulars of the work in respect of which records are to be made;

(b) Alterations and omissions, if any, which are proposed to be made for the adaptation of the work to the records;

(c) The name, address and nationality of the owner of the copyright in the work;

(d) Particulars of the records made previously recording the work;

(e) The number of records intended to be made; and

(f) The amount paid to the owner of the copyright in the work by way of royalties and the manner of payment.

CHAPTER VIII – Importation of Infringing Copies

22.Importation of infringing copies –

Every application under sub-section (1) of Section 53 shall be made in accordance with Form VI and shall be accompanied by the fee specified in the Second schedule.

23.Procedure for examination of infringing copies –

The Registrar of Copyrights or the person authorised by him in this behalf shall, in taking action under sub-section (2) of Section 53, act in collaboration with Customs authorities.

CHAPTER IX – Miscellaneous

24.Mode of making applications etc. –

Every application, notice, statement or any other document to be made, given, filed, or sent under the Act or under these Rules may, unless otherwise directed by the authority concerned, be sent by hand or pre-paid registered post.

25.Mode of communication by the Copyright Board etc. –

Every written intimation from the Copyright Board, the Copyright Office or the Registrar of Copyrights shall be deemed to have been duly communicated to any person if such intimation is sent to the known address of such person by pre-padi registered post.

26.Fees. –

(1) The fees payable under the Act in respect of any matter shall be as specified in the Second Schedule.

(2)The fees may be paid to the Registrar of Copyrights, New Delhi, by a postal order or a bank draft issued by a Scheduled Bank as defined in the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, or by deposit into a Government Treasury or a branch of the Reserve Bank of India or the State Bank of India under the head of account :Major Head – ‘XLVI – Miscellaneous’. Minor Head ‘Naturalization, Passport and Copyright Fees’.

(3)Postal orders and bank drafts shall be crossed and draw able in New Delhi.

(4)Payment by bank drafts shall not be valid unless the amount of bank commission is included therein.

(5)Where payment is made by deposit in a Government Treasury or a branch of the Reserve Bank of India or the State Bank of India, the challan evidencing the payment shall be sent to the authority concerned by pre-paid registered post.

27.Right ofaudience. –

In any proceedings before the Copyright Board orthe Registrar of Copyrights any party may appear and be heard either in person or by a pleader or other person duly authorised by such party.

28.Costs –

The costs of, and incidental to, the proceedings before the Copyright Board or the Registrar or Copyrights shall be in the discretion of the Copyright Board or the Registrar of Copyrights, as the case may be:-

FIRST SCHEDULE

FORM I – Notice of relinquishment of Copyright

(See Rule 5)

To

The Registrar of Copyrights, Copyright Office, New Delhi.

Sir,

In accordance with Section 21 of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957), I hereby give notice that, with effect from the dae of this notice, I do relinquish, to the extent specified in the enclosed affidavit, my rights in the work described in the said affidavit.

Yours faithfully,

(Signature)

Place:

Date:

Form of Affidavit referred to aboveI, …………………………………………………of…………………………… (full name in block letters)

…………………………………………………………………………………….. do hereby one (address) solemn affirmation state that:

(1)I am the author of the work described in the Statement below;

(2)I am the owner of the copyright in the said work to the extent specified in the said Statement; and

(3)I do hereby relinquish my rights in the said work to the extent specified in the said Statement

1. Description of the Work:

(a) Class of the work (Literary, Dramatic, Musical, Artistic, Cinematograph Film, Record).

(b)Title of the work.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the author.

(d)Language of the work.

(e)Name, address and nationality of the publisher.

(f)Year of first publication.

If the work has appeared as a serial or otherwise in a journal or magazine, give the name of the journal or magazine, the volume number of the issue, the date and page reference.

(g)Country of first publication.

(h)If the copyright in the work is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

2.Rights owned by the deponent on the dateof the affidavit.(If the rights are owned jointly with others, state names, address and nationalities of the joint owners.)

3.Extent to which rights are relinquished.

4.Reasons for relinquishment of the rights. (The information given here will be kept strictly confidential.)

5.Remarks if any.

Place:

Date:

Signature

Solemnly affirmed before me by ______________________ who is know to me(name of deponent in block letters) personally/who is identified to me by _______________________ who is known to me personally. (name of identifier in block letters)

Place:

Date:

Signature and seal of the Magistrate.

FORM II – Application for a licence for translation

(See Rule 6)

(To be submitted in triplicate)

To

The Registrar of Copyrights,

Secretary, Copyright Board,

Copyright Office,

New Delhi.

Sir,

In accordance with Section 32 of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957), I hereby apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish a translation of the work in accordance with the particulars given in the enclosed Statement.

2.I hereby undertake to abide strictly by the terms and comditions of the licence, if granted to me.

Yours faithfully,

Signature

Place:

Date:

1.Full name of the applicant. (in block letters)

2.Full address and nationality of the applicant.

3.Telegraphic address, if any.

4.Description of the work:

(a)Class of the work (Literary, Dramatic, Musical, Artistic, Cinematograph Film, Record).

(b)Title of the work.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the author and if the author is deceased, the date of his decease.

(d)Language of the work.

(e)Name, address and nationality of the publisher.

(f)Year of first publication.

(g)Country of first publication.

(h)Price of a copy of the work.

(i)If the copyright in the work is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

If the work has appeared as a serial or otherwise in a journal or magazine, give the name of the journal or magazine, give the name of the journal or magazine, the valume number of the issue, the date and the page reference.

5.Language into which the work is proposed to be translated.

6.Full name, qualifications and address of the translator.

7.Qualifications of the applicant to produce and publish the translation.

8.Number of copies of the translation proposed to be published.

9.Estimated cost of production and publication of the translation.

10. Proposed retail price per copy of the translation.

11. Rate of royalty, which the applicant considers reasonable, to be paid to the copyright owner.

12. Means of the applicant for payment of the royalty.

13. Whether the prescribed fee has been paid and if so, particulars of payment (give Postal Order/Bank Draft/Treasury Challan Number).

14. (a)Full name, address and nationality of the person competent to issue a licence for translation.

(b)Whether the applicant was able to find the said person.

(c)Whether the applicant had requested and had been denied authorisation by the said person to produce and publish the translation.

(d)If the applicant was unable to find the owner, whether he had sent a copy of the request for authorisation to the publisher. If so, the date on which the copy was sent.

Enclose true copies of correspondence, if any.

15. Whether the author of the work has withdrawn from circulation copies of the work.

16. (a)Whether a translation in the same language has been published before.

(b)Whether the earlier translation is out of print.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the earlier translator and if the said translator is deceased, the date of his decease.

(d)Title of the earlier translation.

(e)Full name, address and nationality of the publisher of the earlier translation.

(f)Year of publication.

(g)Price per copy of the earlier translation.

(h)If the earlier translation is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

(i)Rate and amount of royalty paid to the copyright owner in respect of the earlier translation, if known.

17. (a)Whether translation has been made into any language other than the language stated in 5 above.

(b)Full name, address and nationality of the translator and if the said translator is deceased, the date of his decease.

(c)Title of the translation.

(d)Language of the translation.

(e)Full name, addressand nationality of the publisher of the translation.

(f)Year of publication.

(g)Price per copy of the translation.

(h)If the translation is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

(i)Rate and amount of royalty paid to the copyright owner, if known.

18.Remarks, if any

19.List of enclosures.

Place:

Date:

Signature.

II-A (Note: Form II-A and II-B ins. by Noti. No. G.S.R. 602(E), dt. 9-8-1984 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984) (1985 CCL-III-80).

– Application for a licence for publication/reproduction

(See Rule II-A)

(To be submitted in triplicate)

To

The Registrar of Copyrights,

Secretary, Copyright Board,

Copyright Office,

New Delhi

Sir,

In accordance with Section 31/32/32-A of the [(Note: Subs. for “Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1983 (23 of 1983)” by Noti. No. G.S.R. 435(E), dt. 27-4-1992 (w.e.f. 27-4-1992)) Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957)], I hereby apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to publish an unpublished Indian work, or reproduce a published work or to translate a work in accordance with the particulars given in the enclosed Statement.

2.I hereby untertake to abide strictly by the terms and conditions of the licence, if granted to me.

3.I hereby verify that the particulars given in this form are true to the best my knowledge, belief and information and nothing has been concealed therefrom.

Place:

Date:

Yours faithfully,

(Signature)

1.Full name of the applicant ………………………………………………. (In block letters)

2.Full address and nationality of the applicant.

3.Telegraphic address, if any.

4.Description of the work:

(a)Class of the work (Literary, Dramatic, Musical, Artistic, Cinematograph Film, Record).

(b)Title of the work.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the author and if the author is deceased, the dae of his decease.

(d)Language of the work.

(e)Name, address and nationality of the publisher.

(f)Year of first and last publication.

(g)Country of first and last publication.

(h)Price of a copy of the work.

(i)If the copyright in the work is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

(If the work has appeared as a serial or otherwise in a journal or magazine, give the name of the journal or magazine, the valume number of the issue, the date and the page reference).

5.If the licence is applied for translation state:

(a)Language into which the work is proposed to be translated.

(b)Full name, qualifications and address of the translator.

(c)qualifications of the applicant to produce and publish the translation.

6.Indicate the purpose for which the licence is required.

7.Number of copies of work proposed to be published under the licence applied for.

8.Estimated cost of the work to be published.

9.Proposed retail price per copy of the work.

10.Rate of royalty, which the applicant considers reasonable, to be paid to the copyright owner.

11.Means of the applicant forpayment of the royalty.

12.Whether the prescribed fee has been paid and if so, particulars of payment (give Postal Order/Bank Draft/Treasury Challan Number).

13.(a)Full name, address and nationality of the person cometent to issue a licence.

(b)Whether the applicant after due diligence on his part was unable to find the owner.

(c)Whether the applicant has requested and had been denied authorisation by the said person to produce and publish the translation or reproduce the work or publish the unpublished work.

(d)If the applicant has requested and had been denied authorisation by the said person to produce and publish the translation or reproduce the work or publish the unpublished work.

(Enclose true copies of correspondence, if any(.

14.Whether the author ofthe work has withdrawn from circulation copies of the work.

15.In case of application for translation furnish following additional information:-

(a)Whether a translation in the same language has been published before.

(b)Whether the earlier translation is out of print.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the earlier translator and if the said translator is deceased, the date of his decease.

(d)Title of the earlier translation.

(e)Full name, address and nationality of the publisher of the earlier translation.

(f)Year of publication.

(g)Price per copy of the earlier translation.

(h)If the earlier translation is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

(i)Rate and amount of royalty paid to the copyright owner in respect of the earlier translation, if known.

16.(a)Whether translation has been made into any language other than the languagestated in 5 above.

(b)Full name, address and nationality of the translator and if the said translator is deceased, the date of his decease.

(c)Title of the translation.

(d)Language of the translation.

(e)Full name, address and nationality of the publisher of the translation.

(f)Year of publication.

(g)Price per copy of the translation.

(h)If the translation is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

(i)Rate and amount of royalty paid to the copyright owner, if known.

17.Remarks, if any.

18.List of enclosures.

Place:

Date:

(Signature)

FORM II-B

(See Rule II-G)

To

…………………………………………….
…………………………………………….
…………………………………………….

Sir,

[(Note: Subs. by Noti. No. G.S.R. 435(E), dt. 27-4-1992 (w.e.f. 27-4-1992). In accordance with first proviso to sub-section (1) ro the first proviso to sub-section (2) of Section 32-B of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957)], I hereby give notice, that copies of translation/reproduction of the work given below (mention language) have been published by me/under my authorization.

Place:

Date:

Yours faithfully,

(Signature)

1.Title of the work.

2.Name of address of the owner of copyright.

3.Year and country of first publication and name, address and nationality of the publisher.

4.Name and address of the author who has translated the work.

5.Name and address ofthe publisher and year in which the translation has been published in India.

6.Name and address of the publisher and year in which the reproduction of the work has been published in India.

7.Retail price of the published work.

FORM III–Form of Register of Copyrights

(See Rule 15)

1.Registration Number.

2.Name, address and nationality of the applicant.

3.Nature of the applicant’s interest in the copyright of the work.

4.Class and description of the work.

5.Title of the work.

6.Language of thework.

7.Name, address and nationality ofthe author and if the author is deceased, the date of his decease.

8.Whether work is pubished or unpublished.

9.Year and country of first publication and namee, address and nationality of the publisher.

10.Years and countries of subsequent publications, if any, and names, address and nationalities of the publishers.

11.Names, address and nationalities of the owners of the various rights comprising the copyright in the work and the extent of rights heldby each, together with particulars of assignments and licences, if any.

12.Names, addresses and nationalities of other persons, if any, authorised to assign orlicence the rights comprising the copyright.

13.If the work is an ‘Artistic Work’, the location of the original work, including name, address and nationality of the person in possession ofit. (In the case of an architectural work, the year of completion of the work should also be shown).

14.Remarks, if any

FORM IV – Application for Registration of Copyright

(See Rule 16)

To

The Registrar of Copyrights,

Copyright Office,

New Delhi

Sir,

In accrodance with Section 45 of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957), I hereby apply for registration of copyright and request that entries may be made in the Register of Copyrights as in the enclosed Statement of Particulars sent herewith in triplicate.

I also send herewith Rule 16 of the Copyright Rules, 1958, I have sent by prepaid registered post copies of this letter and of the enclosed Statement (s) to the other parties concerned, as shown below:-

Names and addresses of parties

Date of despatch

*See Columns 7,11,12 and 13 of the Register of Copyrights.

3. The prescribed fee has been paid, as per details below:-

4. Communications on this subject may be addressed to:-

[(Note: Ins. by Noti. No. 435(E), dt. 27-4-1992 (w.e.f. 27-4-1992)) I hereby declare that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, no person other than to whom a notice has been sent as per paragraph 2, has any claim, interest or dispute to my copyright of this work, or to its use by me.]

[(Note: Ins. by Noti. No. GSR 602(E), dt. 9-8-1984 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) (Note: Para 4-A renumbered as para 6 by Noti. No. 435(E), dt. 27-4-1992 (w.e.f. 27-4-1992)) I hereby verify that the particulars given in this form and the Statement of Particulars are true to the best of my knowledge, belief and information and nothing has been concealed therefrom.]

Yours faithfully,

Place:

Date:

Signature.

Statement of Particulars

1. Registration Number in the Registerof Copyrights.

2. Changes sought in the particulars of copyright asentered in the Register of Copyrights.

Reference to Column Number of the Register of Copyrights

Existing enty in the Register of Copyrights

Proposed entry in place of the existing entry in the Register of Copyrights

Reasons for the changes proposed

1

2

3

4

(2)The works which are being imported in accordance with the particulars in the said Statement are infringing copies of the work described in the said Statement; and

(3)I am interested in the prevention of importation of the said infringing copies for the following reasons :- (State reasons)

(4)The infringing copies are not being imported for the private and domestic use of the importer. Statement

A. – Particulars of the Work and Rights held.

1. Full name, address and nationality of the applicant.

2. Telegraphic address of the applicant.

3. If the applicant is not the owner of the copyright, full name, address and nationality of the owner of the copyright.

4. Description of the work :-

(a) Class of the work (Literary, Dramatic, Musical, Artistic, Cinematograph Film, Record).

(b) Title of the work.

(c)Full name, address and nationality of the author and if the author is deceased, the date of his decease.

(d)Language of the work.

(e) Name and address of the publisher.

(f) Year of first publication.

(g) Country of first publication.

(h) If the copyright in the work is registered under Section 45, the Registration Number.

If the work was appeared as a serial or otherwise in a journal or magazine, give the name ofthe journal or magazine, the volume number ofthe issue, the date and page reference.

B.Details of import of infringing copies.

1. Country of origin of the infringing copies.

2. Name, address and nationality of the importer in India.

3. Name, address and nationality of the maker of the infringing copies.

4.Expected time and place of import of the infringing copies into India.

5. In case a consignment of the infringing copies is detected and detained, will the applicant be prepared to go himself or depute an authorised agent to identify the said copies to the satisfaction of the Registrar of Copyrights.

C.Any other relevant information not covered above.

Place:

Date:

Signature.

Solemnly affirmed before me by ……………………………………………………………………………………. (full name of deponent in block letters)

Whois known to me personally/who is identified to me by ……………………………………………………………………………………………

(name of identifier in block letters) who is known to me personally.

Place:

Date:

Signature and seal of the Magistrate.

SECOND SCHEDULE

(Note: Subs. by Noti. No. GSR 602(E), dated 9-8-1984 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984) (1985 CCL-III-80)).

“SECOND SCHEDULE”

1.

For a licenceto republish a Literary, Dramatic, Musical or Artistic d Work (Sections 31, 31-A and 32-A)

Rs. 100 per work

2.

For a licence to republish a Cinematograph Film (Section 31)

Rs. 500 per work

3.

For a licence to republish a Record (Section 31)

Rs. 200 per work

4.

For licence to perform an Indian work in public or to communicate the work tothe public by Broadcast (Section 31)

Rs. 25 per work

5.

For an application for a licence to produce and publish a translation of a Literary or Dramatic Work in any language (Section 32 and 312 (I-A))

Rs. 100 per work

6.

For an application for registration of copyright in a -(a) Literary, Dramatic, Musical or Artistic Work.(b) Provided that in respect of a Literary or Artistic Work which is used or capable of being used in relation to any goods (Section 45)

Rs. 10 per work

Rs. 50 per work

7.

For an application for changes in particulars of copyright entered in the Register of Copyrights an respect of a :(a) Literary, Dramatic, Musical or Artistic Work.(b) Provided that in respect of a Literary or Artistic Work which is used or capable of being used in relation to any goods (Section 45).

Rs. 5 per work

Rs. 25 per work

8.

For an application for registration of copyright in a Cinematograph Film (Section 45).

Rs. 200 per work

9.

For an application for registration of changes in particulars of copyright entered in the Register of Copyrights in respect of Cinematograph Film (Section 45).

Rs. 100 per work

10.

For an application for registration of copyright in a Record (Section 45).

Rs. 50 per work

11.

For an application for registration of changes in particulars of copyright entered in the Register of Copyrights in respect of a Record (Section 45).

Rs. 25 per work

12.

For taking extracts from the Register of Copyrights (Section 47).

Rs. 5 per work per hour

13.

For taking extracts from the Indexes (Section 47).

Rs. 2.50 per work per hour

14.

For a certified copy of an extracts from the Register of Copyrights or the Indexes (Section 47).

Rs. 5 per copy

15.

For a certified copy of any other public document inthe custody of the Registrar of Copyrights or the Copyright Board.

Rs. 2.50 per page

16.

For an application for prevention of importation of infringing copies (Section 53).

Rs. 25 per work per place of entry.]

The International Copyright Order, 1991

The International Copyright Order, 1991

(Note: Vide Noti. No. S.O. 657(E), dated 30-9-1991, published in the Gezette of India, Extra., Pt. II,

Section 3(ii), dated 30-9-1991, pp. 5-8 [No. F.12-1/90-IC).

In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 40 of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957), and in super session of the International Copyright Order, 1958, the Central Government hereby makes the following order :-

1. (1)This Order may be called the International Copyright Order, 1991.

(2) It shall come into force on the date of its publication in the Official Gazette.

2. In this Order, unless the context otherwise requires, –

(a) ‘Berne Convention Country’ means a country which is a member of the Berne Copyright Union, and includes a country mentioned either in Part I or in Part II of the Schedule ;

(b) ‘Phonograms Convention Country’ means a country which has either ratified, or accepted or acceded to the Convention for the Protection of Producers of Phonograms against Unauthorized Duplication of their Phonograms, done at Geneva on the twenty-ninth day of October, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one, and includes a country mentioned in Part V of the Schedule ;

(c) ‘Schedule’ means the Schedule appended to this Order ;

(d) ‘Universal Copyright Convention Country’ means a country which has either ratified, or accepted or acceded to the Universal Copyright Convention, and includes a country mentioned either in Part III or in Part IV of the Schedule.

Explanation – ‘Phonogram’ means any exclusively aural fixation of sounds of a performance or other sounds.

3. Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 4, all the provisions of the Copyright Act, 1957 (14 of 1957) (hereinafter referred to as the Act), except those of Chapter VIII ; and those other provisions which apply exclusively to Indian works, shall apply, –

(a) To any work first made or published in a country mentioned in Part I, II, III or IV of the Schedule, in like manner as if it was first published in India;

(b) Toany work first made or published in a country other than a country mentioned in Part I, II, III or IV of the Schedule, the author of which was, at the date of such publication, or, where the author was dead on that date, he was at the time of his death, a national of a country mentioned in Part I, II, III or IV of the Schedule, in like manner, as if the author was a citizen of India at that point of time;

(c) To an unpublished work, the author whereof was, at the time of the making or publication of the work, a national or domiciled in any country mentioned in Parts I, II, III or IV of the Schedule, in like manner, as if the author was a citizen of, or domiciled in India;

(d) To any work first made or published by a body corporate incorporated under any law of a country mentioned in Part I, II, III or IV of the Schedule, in like manner, as if it was incorporated under a law in force in India; and

(e) To a record first made, the producer of which was, at the date of such production, a national of a country mentioned in Part V of the Schedule or a body corporate incorporated under a law in force in such a country, in like manner as if the producer was the citizen of India; or a body corporate incorporated under a law in force in India, as the case may be, at that point of time.

Explanation – ‘Record’ means any disc, tape, perforated roll or other device in which sounds are embodied so as to be capable of being reproduced therefrom, other than a sound-track associated with a cinematograph film.

4. Notwithstanding anything contained in Paragraph 3(a), the provisions of sub-section (1) of Section 32 of the Act –

(i) Shallnot apply to a work first made or published in any Berne Convention Country mentioned in Part I orII of the Schedule ; and

(ii) Shall apply to a work first made or published in any Universal Copyright Convention Country mentioned in Part III or IV of the Schedule, only in respect of the translation of such work into any language specified in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

5.The provisions of Section 32 [excluding its sub-section (1)], 32-A and 32-B shall apply to a work first made or published in a Berne Convention Country mentioned in Part I of the Schedule or in a Universal Copyright Convention Country mentioned in Part III ofthe Schedule.

6. The term of copyright in a work shall not exceed that which is enjoyed by it in its country of origin.

Explanation – In this paragraph, “the country oforigin” shall mean –

(a) In this case of a work first made or published in a Berne Convention Country or a Universal Copyright Convention Country, that country;

(b) In the case of a work made or published simultaneously either in a Berne Convention Country or a Universal Copyright Convention Country and in a country which is neither a Berne Convention Country nor a Universal Copyright Convention Country, the former country;

(c)In the case of a work which is made or published simultaneously in several Universal Copyright Convention Countries, the country whose laws grant the shortest term of copyright to such a work ;

(d)In the case of a work which is made or published simultaneously in several Universal Copyright Convention Counties, the country whose laws grant the shortest term of copyright to such a work ;

(e) In the case of an unpublished work or a work first made or published in a country other than a Berne Convention Country or a Universal Copyright Convention Country, the country of which the author was a citizen, or the country in which he was domiciled atthe time of its first publication, whichever grants the longer term of copyright.

7. The provisions of the International Copyright Order, 1958 shall cease to have effect from the date his Order comes into force.

Sample DMCA Takedown Notice / Copyright Infringement Letter (Educational purpose only)

DMCA Takedown Notice Sample

Date: xx-xx-xxxx

Sender Information:
Sender Name
Sender Address, State, Zipcode, Country

Recipient Information:
User Support
Google, Inc.
Mountain View, CA, 94043, USA

Sent via: REGISTERED MAIL
Re: www.compaint-website-here.com

Dear User Support:

I represent <Sender-Name>, in connection with the protection of its intellectual property. The above-referenced website/s are infringing the copyright of <Sender-Name>.

This following statement is made in accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”), 17 U.S.C. §512(c)(3)(A):

1. There are two copyrighted works which have been infringed:

  • a. A drawing owned by <Sender-Name>; and,
  • b. A quote from Mr. I. B. Bad that begins with “blah, blah, blah” owned by <Sender-Name>.

The infringing material is located at www.compaint-website-here.com and at www.compaint-website2-here.com

3. Use of this material by the operator of the above-referenced website is not authorized by <Sender-Name>.

4. I declare under penalty of perjury that the foregoing statements are accurate and that I am authorized to act on behalf of <Sender-Name>, the owner of the exclusive right to the copyrights.

Pursuant to the DMCA, please remove links to the infringing website upon receipt of this notice.

Thank you for your prompt attention to this matter.

Sincerely,

<Sender-Name> [signature]

 

Disclaimer: This is only sample letter for knowledge, educational purpose only. And should not be construed as legal advice. We strongly recommend that you consult a lawyer for an actual form that would be appropriate to your particular situation.

Yahoo DMCA Notifications
Daniel Dougherty
c/o Yahoo! Inc.
701 First Avenue
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
Phone: (408) 349-5080
Fax: (408) 349-7821
Email: copyright@yahoo-inc.com

Google DMCA Notifications
Google, Inc.
Attn: User Support, DMCA Complaints
1600 Amphitheatre Parkway
Mountain View, CA 94043
Fax Number: (650) 618-2649

AskJeeves/Teoma DMCA
Ask Jeeves, Inc.
Attention: General Counsel
5858 Horton Street, Suite 350
Emeryville, CA 94608 USA
Fax: (510) 985-7507
Email: CopyrightAgent@askjeeves.com

Bing DMCA Notifications
Microsoft Corporation c/o M. Skelton
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Fax: (425) 936-7329
Email: dmcaagnt@microsoft.com

Bombay HC directs police to register complaint against Yashraj films

(UNI) The Bombay High Court has directed the Mumbai Police to include the Yashraj Films as the accused in an offence registered with the Amboli police station relating to the film ‘Ek Tha Tiger’.

A division bench of Justices A M Khanvilkar and R Y Ganoo yesterday passed the order following an application moved by the counsel Prashant Patil for his client Anand Shankar Panda, a writer.

Based on the directions of the High Court, the Mumbai police registered an offence under sections 406, 420 and 34 of the Indian Penal Code and sections 51, 53 and 63 of the Copyrights act against producer Aditya Chopra, director Kabir Khan, Ms Samyukta Khan and Nilesh Mishra.

The police had not booked the company Yashraj Films in the case, hence when the counsel Patil pointed this to the court directed to include the company’s name in the First Information Report that was registered with police on September 9.

The Amboli police registered an FIR against the producer of the film ‘Ek Tha Tiger’, Aditya Chopra and director Kabir Khan, under charges of cheating, criminal breach of trust and violation of Copyright Act.

Panda had approached the High Court alleging the accused had stolen his script to make the film.

In his complaint, Panda stated that he had approached the producer in 2011 with his script ‘Ghost Wars’, which is registered with Film Writers’ Association in Mumbai and under the Data Protection Act in London. The script was returned to him after some time.

He alleged in his complaint that despite being told that his work had been turned down, the producer made ‘Ek Tha Tiger’ on the basis of his script. He also approached the Writers’ Association about it.

The complainant informed the court that when he saw the film he found that its storyline, plot and characters had been infringed from his script ‘Ghost Wars’.

The film was made very secretly, for a Rs 100 crore club movie there was not even a ‘muhurat’, lest to talk about celebrations and the entire schedule was done abroad, he said leaving him clueless, the complainant stated. UNI